## Introduction – Nazca Lines

Stretching across the Nazca plains** like a giant map or blueprint left by ancient astronauts, lie the famous Nazca Lines of Peru.** Peru is associated with the Inca Civilization.

The Nazca Lines are an engima. **No one has proof who built them or why.** Since their discovery, the Nazca Lines have inspired fantastic explanations from ancient gods, a landing strip for returning aliens, a celestial calendar created by the ancient Nazca civilization — putting the creation of the lines between 200 BC and 600 AD, used for rituals probably related to astronomy, to confirm the ayllus or clans who made up the population and to determine through ritual their economic functions held up by reciprocity and redistribution, or a map of underground water supplies.

There are also huge geoglyphs in Egypt, Malta, United States (Mississippi and California), Chile, Bolivia and in other countries. But the **Nazca geoglyphs**, because of their numbers, characteristics, dimensions and cultural continuity, were made and remade throughout the whole pre-hispanic period, forming a most impressive, as well as enigmatic, archeological group.

### Location

The Nazca Lines are located in the Nazca Desert, a high arid plateau that stretches between the towns of Nazca and Palpa on the pampa (a large flat area of southern Peru). The desolate plain of the Peruvian coast which comprises the Pampas of San Jose (Jumana), Socos, El Ingenio and others in the province of Nasca, is 400 Km. South of Lima, covers an area of approximately 450 km2, of sandy desert as well as the slopes of the contours of the Andes.

They cover nearly 400 square miles of desert. Etched in the surface of the desert pampa sand about 300 hundred figures made of straight lines, geometric shapes most clearly visible from the air.

### Nazca Plain

**Nazca Plain** The Nazca plain is virtually **unique for its ability to preserve the markings upon it**, due to the combination of the climate (one of the driest on Earth, with only twenty minutes of rainfall per year) and the flat, stony ground which minimizes the effect of the wind at ground level. ** With no dust or sand to cover the plain, and little rain or wind to erode it, lines drawn here tend to stay drawn**. These factors, combined with the existence of a lighter-colored subsoil beneath the desert crust, provide a vast writing pad that is ideally suited to the artist who wants to leave his mark for eternity. The pebbles which cover the surface of the desert contain ferrous oxide. The exposure of centuries has given them a dark patina. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color, even though in some cases they became prints. In other cases, the stones defining the lines and drawings form small lateral humps of different sizes. Some drawings, especially the early ones, were made by removing the stones and gravel from their contours and in this way the figures stood out in high relief. The concentration and juxtaposition of the lines and drawings leave no doubt that they required intensive long-term labor as is demonstrated by the stylistic continuity of the designs, which clearly correspond to the different stages of cultural changes.

### Nazca Lines – Enigmatic Designs

There appear to be various designs consisting of figures of animals, flowers and plants, objects, and anthropomorphic figures of colossal proportions made with well-defined lines.

The most well-known being is The Astronaut at 32m length discovered by Eduardo Herran in 1982.

### The Dog

*Aerial View of the Nazca Glyph “Dog” (top) and the enhanced drawing (bottom).*

The Nazca glyph named “Dog” has very strange styling similarity to Gobekli Tepe fox (or lizard?) carving:

## The Sun-Star and Cross of Peru

For years people have been making theories about who made the giant figures, how they were made and especially why they were made. A review of these theories follows.Perhaps even more interesting than the figures of animals and the zig-zag lines is one unusual image known as “the mandala.” This image is extremely remote and sits atop an arid mountain plateau.

The image appears to have been carved with exceptional precision. A large square measures 180 feet across while an inner circle spans the same diameter. Several smaller squares, about 20 feet wide, appear to have been etched in the landscape along with an assortment of strategically placed holes.

### Gilbert de Jong — A Nazcan Zodiac

Gilbert de Jong actually visited and meticulously surveyed Nazca, measuring and plotting the features with GPS. He was especially interested in the so-called “mandala” figure. This figure, a huge circle inside of a square, appeared to remind him of a zodiac map. This was further supported by the image if a snake-like creature, positioned at one point where de Jong expected to find the symbol for “Aries.”

The absense of any other zodiac signs is puzzling. Also, no one has yet figured out the significance of the many holes and pits that are an integral part of the structure.

Gilbert de Jong believes that the interpretation of the many other animal figures is likely to be different representations for constellations by an ancient culture.

*Click to Enlarge this image (copyright Gilbert de Jong). The image appears to have been carved with exceptional precision. A large square measures 180 feet across while an inner circle spans the same diameter. Several smaller squares, about 20 feet wide, appear to have been etched in the landscape along with an assortment of strategically placed holes.*

### Moses, Jesus and Nasca

*by Gilbert de Jong*

Something very strange was going on in Nasca in the early intermediate Period of Nasca 3 (just after 1 BC). Helaine Silverman excavated, among others, the ceremonial centre of Cahuachi near the famous Nasca lines. She has found several objects (pottery and clothing) with cross markings on it *(Fig. 12)* and a bowl with three almost identical anthropomorphic beings wearing a crown.

A winged mythical being flying through the sky *(Fig. 13*) with a trophy head in hand (symbol for death) is drawing a line as if suggesting that history will be written…

Did somebody (re)calculate an important event in history: the crossing of Venus-loops?

*Fig. 13 The corps of Jezus Christ and his crown?*

Considering the fact that the behavior of Venus takes at least 16 years to find out in which direction and in which speed Venus risings in every one of the 5 heliacal risings take place one needs a perfect place where lines will be visible over a long period of time. The only place I know with excellent conditions is Nasca, which I visited in 1998. I think the three stone circles mark the ‘conclusion’ of the famous Nasca lines. I noticed that in probably Nasca Venus settings were watched towards the western sky instead of heliacal Venus risings in the east.

In Nasca I rented a plane for one hour to make pictures from the sky of these three stone circles. I measured the stone-circles in the field.

**
**

*Fig. 14b Can you see the corps of Jesus Christ and his crown?*

I think Nasca might be the place where Moses begot his laws of heaven and where the Phoenicians calculated the time when the double symmetrical Venus crossing would take place.

Now is the time this secret will be revealed and mankind realizes that we all are, in fact, one and we all received the ancient astronomical teachings of the Phoenicians what was afterwards named ‘religion’.

This is the meaning of *“these giants really knew the four quarters of the earth and heaven”.*

**A Nazcan Zodiac**

Gilbert de Jong was himself in Nazca and measured the GGF by GPS. He obtained a length of the square side of about 54,7 Meter. In the formation he recognized a Zodiac.

Nazca GGF photo. Click to enlarge.

Copyright by Gilbert de Jong

*Nazca GGF drawing. Click to enlarge.
Copyright by Gilbert de Jong*

http://www.world-mysteries.com/nasca_gdj_lg.jpg

*Nazca GGF drawing with details. Click to enlarge. Copyright by Gilbert de Jong*

*Copyright 2003-2012 by G.J. de Jong
All Rights Reserved
Reprinted with permission*

Don’t Miss an incredible “follow up” article by Doug Krieger presenting **another interpretation of this Nazca Drawing**: **SUN-STAR & CROSS OF PERU**

## PS1 Blueprint for the Perfect Sun-Star Glyph in Sumerian Feet

Using **measurements of the Nazca Sun-Star and Cross provided by Gilbert de Jong***, we recreated** “perfect”** blueprint for this Nazca Drawing (it corrects very minor errors inherent in the Nazca drawing itself or in its measurements).

*** Gilbert de Jong confirmed that the measures where taken by himself on the ground and are accurate for he used a measuring tape and/or measuring wheel. As you can see on his pics the lines have not been drawn with greater accuracy then he has measured.**

The dimensions of the grid suggest that the architects of this Nazca blueprint were **using Sumerian Feet** as the basic units of measure:

Here is our simple reasoning:

Using drawing by Gilbert de Jong (see the *Nazca GGF drawing with details earlier in this article)* and his measurements of the “smaller square” you will notice that the drawing does not have “perfect” dimensions (it could be problem with how it was measured or with the desert drawing itself – it is not easy to execute such a perfect shape on the ground).

Perimeter of the smaller (measured) square is (according to measurements by Gilbert de Jong) **54.7m + 53.6m + 53.9m + 53.0m = 215.20 m**

That smaller square is sitting on top of the **16 x16 grid** — if measured by the smallest grid “squares” (btw, total # of squares inside smaller square is 256) .

Perimeter of the “smaller square” expressed in the smallest “grid-units” is **16×4 = 64**

**To get an averaged value** of the side of the grid’s smallest square (unit) we have to divide the perimeter of the small square in meters by the number of units sitting on that perimeter:

**215.20m / 64 = 3.3625 m**

Now let’s look at this value expressed in various ancient units to see if any of them will result in a “nice” numbers:

**The “Grid Unit” value equals:**

11.031824 feet

6.4200 Royal Egyptian Cubits of 20.61818″

5.2532 Solomonic Cubit/Sacred Cubit’s length of 25.20″

9.0511 Remen

4.0558 Megalithic Yards

3.2090 Mayan Hunab

10.0289 Sumerian Foot of 13.2″

**Conclusion: Sumerian Foot is the clear winner!**

Note, There is a good chance that if the drawing was drawn and/or measured perfectly, we would have the grid value **10.000 Sumerian Feet**

This study looks at the citadel for evidence of “Sumerian” units, but in actual fact, it seems that** “Sumerian”, “Egyptian” and “Mayan” units are all based on the same measurement foundation, a plot of 100 x 100 “Sumerian” cubits which when divided by 100, 96 or 48 gives “Sumerian”, Egyptian” or Mayan” units respectively.**

A unit of 50 Sumerian feet of 13.2″ would be 20 Sumerian yards of 50 shusi, or 10 double yards of 100 shusi, or simply, 1,000 Sumerian shusi of 0.66″. It would also be 32 Egyptian royal cubits of 20.625″ or 16 Mayan hunabs of 41.25″. Surprisingly it also means that 32 Egyptian royal cubits were equal to 1,000 Sumerian shusi, seeming to confirm that all the above measurements although attributed to varying countries as far apart as Sumeria, Egypt and Mexico, were originally part of a unified system as seen at Teotihuacan.

*Click to enlarge*

Above, a portion of the ruler known as “Gudea’s rule” preserved in the Louvre shows intervals in Sumerian “shusi” of 0.66″ which Berriman demonstrated formed 20 to the Sumerian foot of 13.2″ and 30 to the Sumerian cubit of 19.8″. 50 shusi made the Sumerian yard of 33.0″ and 100 shusi made the Sumerian “double yard”.

—

Ancient sites reflect use of variety of cubits: 19.8″ Sumerian” cubit, 20.0″ geographic cubit, 20.625″ Egyptian Royal cubit… The Greeks used a 1/4000th part of a degree of latitude for their geographic cubit while the Egyptians used a 1/5000th part of a degree for their “remen” and the Sumerians used a 24/25th part of the Egyptian Royal cubit for their cubit of 30 “shusi”. ** What if certain major sites used cubit based on its own degree of latitude?**

For example: the latitude of Akapana is 16º 33.698′ or 16.5616333º which according to the** length of degree calculator** gives a length of 110664.55metres for the latitude of Akapana. If we divide this not by 5,000 or 6,000 but by 3600 or 60 x 60, **this gives a cubit of 512.3358mm or 20.17″** which is worthwhile to verify against any accurate survey of the dimensions of the various remaining stones at Tiwanaku.

For **Teotihuacan** located 19.69 deg N, length of 1 Degree of Latitude is: **363189.68 feet (110700.43 m)**. If we divide it by **60’x60″ = 3600** we get value for** 1 second of arc: 100.886 feet** (30.748 m ). Dividing each second by 60 we get **“Teotihuacan cubit” value 1.6814 ‘ = 20.177″ (0.512.5 m )**

**The Sumerian basic units were:**

- “shusi” of 0.66″
- link of 12 shusi (7.92″)
- foot of 20 shusi (13.2″)

- cubit of 30 shusi (19.8″) equal to 1.5 sumerian foot

- yard of 50 shusi (33.0″)

- double yard of 100 shusi (66.0″)

It seems that “Sumerian”, “Egyptian” and “Mayan” units are all based on the same measurement foundation, a plot of **100 x 100 “Sumerian” cubits** which when divided by **100, 96 or 48**gives “Sumerian”, Egyptian” or Mayan” units respectively. For evidence of sumerian metrology at Teotihuacan go to Measurement units of the Citadel in Teotihuacan, Mexico.

* Source:* http://www.atlantisbolivia.org/citadelcubits.htm

Interesting **connection between Nazca and Tiwanaku** can be found on Jim Allen’s page about PumaPunku (near Tiwanacu in Bolivia). Besides the similarity of the “cross” there is also Sumerian connection: many measurements in Tiwanaku, Peru and Mexico can be related to Sumerian units. In addiction to the Sumerian metrology, a “proto-cuneiform” script was found on the Fuente Magna bowl discovered by the shores of Lake Titicaca.

*The square cross symbol from Puma Punku, Tiwanaku.*

* This page *looks at some published dimensions of buildings and courtyards at Tiwanaku and analyses them in terms of “Egyptian” and “Sumerian” cubits.

Earlier studies of sites in Mexico, Peru and Bolivia suggest that use of the “Sumerian” measurement units was common throughout ancient pre-Columbian South America as was “Egyptian” units since these are both linked to each other with the Sumerian cubit being 24/25th of the Egyptian cubit. This had practical applications in land measurements since 100 Sumerian cubits was equal to 96 Egyptian cubits and this facilitated subdivision in whole numbers.. See links to earlier essays at foot of page.

Therefore a block of 100 x 100 Sumerian cubits could be divided in 1/10ths or 1/2’s and remain in Sumerian cubits, or by 1/3rds for Sumerian yards of 50 shusi or by halves, quarters or eights for ‘Egyptian’ cubits.

For that reason, it is not unusual to find both ‘Sumerian’ cubits and ‘Egyptian’ cubits present at the same locations.

The Spanish Conquistadors also brought with them a yard or ‘vara’ of 33″ which obviously had its origin in the Sumerian yard of 33.0″ which was 50 Sumerian “shusi” of 0.66″ as well as other Sumerian units which similarly passed into Anglo Saxon measurement systems, the “Saxon” foot of 13.2″ being the same as the Sumerian foot of 13.2″ (20 Sumerian shusi”), the Saxon pole of 16.5ft was in origin a “Sumerian” pole of 15 Sumerian feet, and the acre of 66 x 660ft resulting in 43,560 square English feet was originally 60 x 600 Sumerian feet making 36,000 square Sumerian feet.

The Sumerian cubit of 19.8″ was 30 Sumerian shusi and in metric terms would be 502.92mm, two x Sumerian cubits would be 1005.84mm which is fairly close to 1 metre, so if a pre-Columbian site has measurements in round numbers of metres, we can virtually double them to find the equivalent in Sumerian cubits. Something that has surprised some archaeologists in the past was the frequency with which some pre-Columbian sites came out in round numbers of metres – but then maybe they should have changed from a metric tape measure to a Sumerian one!

The object of this page is to look at the stone momuments of Tiwanaku to see if they were constructed in known units such as the “Sumerian” or “Egyptian” cubits.

Another value of Egyptian Royal cubit was 20.625″ where this cubit was the diagonal of a square whose sides were a unit called a “remen” of 14.58″ which was a 1/5000th part of a minute of latitude. This is the cubit built into the sides of the Great Pyramid in Egypt whose sides measure 440 such cubits. 24/25ths of this cubit would be 19.8″ which is the Sumerian cubit of 30 shusi. And 10 “loka” of 600mm are virtually 12 Sumerian cubits of 19.8″ making it in some instances difficult to determine which units really were used at Tiwanaku, whilst other evidence suggests that in fact both “Egyptian” and “Sumerian” units were used since they both belonged originally to the same universal, measuring system.

The Sumerian units were [16]

Shusi of 0.66″

Link of 12 shusi (7.92″)

Foot of 20 shusi (13.2″)

Cubit of 30 shusi (19.8″)

Yard of 50 shusi (33.0″)

Double yard of 100 shusi (66.0″)

Pole of 16.5ft (15 Sumerian feet)

Furlong of 660ft (600 Sumerian feet) etc.

For those who are curious as to why there should be two different lengths of Egyptian Royal Cubit, I will give the explanation here. When at the time of the French revolution they attempted to survey the circumference of the Earth to give a standard unit of measurement, they defined the average circumference as 40,000,000 metres, this was the origin of the unit called the metre. Today’s figure for the average circumference is 40,008,258 metres. Alternative methods of measuring the circumference of the Earth would be to measure it at the equator, where it is largest, or to measure it through a meridian, which is a line passing North to South through both north and south poles.

Above, the latest measurements of the equator and polar meridians from Wikipedia. Click to enlarge.

When the Egyptians or whoever it was calculated the length of the Royal Cubit, they obtained one value by measuring from the meridians and the other value by measuring from the equator. Instead of dividing the circumference into 40,000,000 to obtain a metre, they divided the equatorial circumference by 360 then by 60 to obtain a geographic mile. They then divided this by 5,000 to obtain a unit called a “remen” which became the sides of a square whose diagonal was one cubit – in this case the “royal cubit” of 525mm.

For an alternative cubit for land surveying, they could take the average nautical mile of 6076.884ft, or the meridian mile as defined above of 6076.82ft, divide this by 5000 gives a remen of 14.584″ which becomes the sides of a square and gives a corresponding diagonal for the square as 20.625″ royal cubit with 24/25ths of this Egyptian Royal Cubit being the Sumerian cubit of 19.80″.

**Source: ***Jim Allen Tiwanaku cubits and measuring units*

## PS2 Peculiarity of some famous pyramids measured Sumerian feet

Here are some intriguing numerical observations:

### Teotihuacan

Pyramid of the Sun

**Base** 223.5 metres (733.2 ft) =666.6 SF

Pyramid of the Moon

**Base** 149m x 168m = 444.4 x 501.1 SF

The Citadel complex

**Width** 1320 ft = 1200 SF

The Feathered Serpent Pyramid

**Rear Pyramid depth** 220 ft =200 SF

Pyramid of Kukulcan at Chichen Itza

**Base** 55.3 metres (181 ft)= 164.54545454 SF

**Staircase to Staircase** at the base: 200 SF

**Refrences:** *Wikipedia and AtlantisinBolivia*

### Giza

*Side of each pyramid expressed in Sumerian Feet generates infinite repeating decimal*

Pyramid of Menkaure

**Base** 103.4 metres (339 ft) = 308.18181818 SF

Pyramid of Khafre

**Base** 215.25 metres (706 ft) = 641.81818181 SF

Pyramid of Khufu (The Great Pyrmid)

**Base** 230.4 metres (756 ft) = 687.27272727 SF

## PS3 Is latitude of ancient sites encoded in their dimensions?

Carl Munck in his “Pyramid Matrix” suggests, that each pyramid contains encoded in its dimensions info about its latitude.

In fact all ancient sites being part of this matrix should have their geographic coordinates encoded in their features.

Over the millennia people could establish variety of longitude markers, but due to our planet’s rotation on its axis, our equator is always the perfect reference point for latitude

(unless there was crust shifting in the past ).

Let’s apply Munck’s theory to few famous ancient sites >>

## PS 4 Comments by Jim Allen

With the great pyramid it was measured several times by different people over the centuries, with slight variations in answers, another problem was deciding where to measure from ie where the corner sockets were or was there a platform it was standing on etc.

As to Puma Punku, using a **167.36 metres measurement** of Puma Punku by **Alexei Vranich** in ** Journal of Field Archaeology** that comes pretty much to

**100 x double Sumerian yards of 100 shusi (or 500 Sumerian feet)**the difference being 280mm or 11 inches which on such a long measurement is pretty good going and

**confirmation of the Sumerian units there.**

Many of the **measurements by George Squier for Tiwanaku** came out in **round numbers of inches**, particularly of 20” but I don’t know if that’s because he just measured to the nearest inch or it actually was 20.0”, when I measured one of the H blocks it measured **1020mm** which is **40.15”” ie 2 x 20” cubits**, but I wasn’t able to measure others, I think there is a slight variation in the size of the actual stones, I mention that because some people thought the** H blocks were made from a type of cast concrete in which case they should all be exactly the same size, but they weren’t,** (a few millimetres difference in each one?) the same with the conduits, **you would expect them to be all exactly the same size but there are slight differences in each of them**, probably because they were made by hand which took a long time and the workmen eventually decided it was time to knock off and go home!

I think it was **Piazzi Smyth who came up with all sorts of (religious) interpretations for the numbers of the Great Pyramid most of which would be discounted today,** but the Speed of Light is a universal constant which was just as valid then as it is today, which is why I introduced it into the megalithic yard equation, because the Earth actually describes an ellipse in space, not a perfect circle, each of these little discoveries like the Tiwanaku Calendar giving a practical application for the Megalithic Yard or your grid for the Mandela adds a little bit to our understanding of a complex ancient measuring system which otherwise has been largely discounted today.

Not very long ago someone called Hector Bahiense wrote me about his page on the Nazca features as a result of which I created a page of my own www.atlantisbolivia.org/

As usual I tried Google earth to try and measure some of the features and see if they came to anything in Sumerian cubits.

What also struck me was the **little known system of tunnels carrying water beneath the plain as these are similar to the system of Qanats found in Persia.** I have also heard of **channels carrying water beneath the Altiplano in Bolivia and when I visited the village of Quillacas many years ago, the villagers told me about a stone lined tunnel which carried water for many kilometres down from the mountains to their village well.**

I recently made some other pages: www.atlantisbolivia.org/

the page was intended to make available all the published information about Tiwanaku, but it was difficult to obtain some early books particularly the German one with site surveys and from what** I hear the site in Bolivia has been closed to the public** so was unable to get anyone to take photos of the sun going down over the calendar.

But also I discovered that the **Akapana pyramid** probably originally measured 360 x 365.24 Egyptian Royal cubits using measurements and a plan made by George Squier. Then when studying some measurements I made at the site last year, it seemed that some objects were made in multiples of 20.0” – obviously very difficult to distinguish between a pure **20.0” cubit and a 19.8” Sumerian cubit,** but there is a difference of about 5mm, but that depends on the accuracy of the original workings, also I found there might be a **20.17” cubit which could have been derived from the latitude of Tiwanaku itself,** after all, **if Greek and Egyptian cubits were based on their latitudes respectively, then why not Tiwanaku?**

Unfortunately I was stopped by the security guards from taking any measurements, just a couple of sneaky ones when they weren’t looking so, I mention this because the “star mandala” in Nazca is very interesting, but we have to be careful in concluding it was Sumerian cubits, the lack of accurate data is always a problem and a feature so large will have **different measurements if measured by different people,** but in this case as you have some on the ground measurements it looks like **160 Sumerian feet per side is right.** **This always intrigued me, the Tower of Babel was measured by an English archaeologist who recorded it as 300 English feet – which does in fact tie with the dimensions of sacred (25”) and great (30”) cubits of the Bible but seems strange because they theoretically should be measuring in Babylon in Sumerian or Babylonian feet, you would think, and this same archaeologist measured other features there and said they were 20 feet wide – when I wonder if really they were 19.8 feet wide which would be 18 Sumerian feet and so on.**

With the **EL Castillo at Chichen Itza in Yukatan** we have **measurements taken by laser survey** by CyArk: www.atlantisbolivia.org/

At the end of the day, if a feature comes out in round numbers particularly 360 then I think it is a pretty good indication of** which units were originally intended in the construction,** but remember things may not always be set out very accurately to begin with, which I think is the case in Tiwanaku.

I have now got as far as your **The “Grid Unit” value equals: (working my way down the page), I take your measurement of **3.3625 meters, convert to inches and divide by Sumerian double yard of 66.0” (100 shusi) and get the answer 2 sumerian double yards…Or as you put it, 10 Sumerian feet, that’s interesting as also just checked, 9 Remen so Remen and Sumerian foot are 9 to 10 just as Sumerian cubit and Egyptian royal cubit are 24 to 25… so 9 Remen are 10 Sumerian feet which are 11 English feet! And so on…

Also that’s particularly interesting to find remen, because** a square whose side is 9 remen will automatically have a diagonal of 9 Egyptian royal cubits…** to set out such a square, take a cord of 9 Egyptian royal cubits in length, peg it out on the ground, meanwhile two assistants each with a cord of 9 remen in length make an intersection of arcs at 9 remen distance, put peg into ground, repeat on opposite side of base line, join the pegs and you have a square whose side is 10 Sumerian feet….

Coming down your page, I see you have got the citadel cubits info in there already… and Berriman’s photo of the shusi ruler in the Louvre. You also found the Tiwanaku cubits page already. Base of pyramid of Sun and Moon, these pyramids have been heavily “reconstructed” I think….

Pyramid of Khufu (The Great Pyrmid)

**Base** 230.4 metres (756 ft) = 687.27272727 SF

Usually counted as 440 Egyptian Royal cubits of 20.625”

**The Sun-Star and Cross of Peru**

Coming back now to the ** Star Mandala**, I did look at it a while back but gave up for lack of accurate data.

“Gilbert de Jong was himself in Nazca and measured the GGF by GPS. He obtained a length of the square side of about 54,7 Meter.

54.7 metres would be 179.46 feet

The image appears to have been carved with exceptional precision. A large square measures 180 feet across while an inner circle spans the same diameter. Several smaller squares, about 20 feet wide, appear to have been etched in the landscape along with an assortment of strategically placed holes.

It would be interesting if the square were exactly 180 feet per side….

Ah but is it? The detailed drawing itself says 53.90 metres east-west and 53.00m north-south averaging these gives 53.450metres = 2104.33” = 175.36 English feet = 159.4 Sumerian feet.

**Its always a bit misleading when figures are rounded up**, as for example 180 feet per side. Now we know it was 160 Sumerian feet per side, I have just verified this in Google Earth as far as the accuracy of the poor quality image allows, so divided into 8 squares per side each square would theoretically be 20 Sumerian feet per side or 18 Remen per side with diagonal of 18 Egyptian royal cubits etc. But Google earth is always something of an approximation so you can’t beat having ground measurements. With tape measure…

With a side of 160 Sumerian feet, the circumference of a circle contained by it would be 160 x pi = 160 x 3.14159 = 502.65 Sumerian feet = 6635” = 100 double Sumerian yards of 100 shusi more or less……. But I notice the large circle on the drawing is slightly less wide than the actual square, however the 80 Sumerian feet wide circle seems to fit the squares and its circumference would be 100 Sumerian yards of 33.17”

**What it all comes to is using one unit to measure or define the sides of a square, another for the diagonal so it comes out in round numbers, another for the circumference of a circle so that also comes out in round numbers and so on.** It reminds me of the calendar wall at Tiwanaku.

If the length of the calendar wall is 96 Sumerian cubits representing half the year, double that is the diameter of a circle representing the year and the circumference would be 96 x 2 x pi x 19.8” = 11943.068”

Dividing by the 360 mathematical year gives a unit of 33.175” Sumerian yard, While dividing by 365.214 actual year =32.69” = megalithic yard.

If you have a mathematical calculator handy, then I think you will find that the distance travelled on its orbit by planet Earth in a 36,000^{th} part of a year using a mathematical year of 360 days comes to 33” Sumerian yard while the actual distance using a year of 365.24219 days comes to 32.64” megalithic yard.

The figures are even better if you use the figure for the speed of light as the diameter of the circle of the earth’s orbit and so on etc….

This is what I think they were fishing around at sites like this Mandala and also Tiwanaku, whether they realized it or not….

Details are in my book* Decoding Ezekiel’s Temple*, available in Kindle but not yet found a way of distributing in pdf although have in pdf format on the computer, here’s a bit on the calculation of the Sumerian yard and Megalithic yard, that was before I found the relationship in the Tiwanaku calendar.

If we were an imaginary Babylonian orbiting the Sun at 93,000,000 miles radius or to be precise according to *Funk & Wagnells Encyclopaedia* covering a distance of 583,400,400 miles and dividing this great circle into 360 days, we would cover a theoretical distance of 18.756 miles in a second. This might be slightly too large a unit for everyday use, so we could divide again by 36,000 to find a yard of 33.01” – which is actually the Sumerian yard of 50 Sumerian shusi!

The ancient Greeks for all their powers of reason lacked one thing, the observatories and the observations. Well before their time, in **France and Britain, megalithic man was aligning thousands of stones and rings and observing the positions of stars and planets for many centuries.** If he had deduced the velocity of this planet on its orbit, with **365¼ days to the year** he might have found it to be virtually 160,000 statute miles a day or 66600 miles per hour, which, continuing the Babylonian tradition of dividing miles per second by 36,000, would have given him the unit known as – *the megalithic yard..*

Had megalithic man computed the distance travelled by the Earth in a 36,000th part of a second using the Solar year of 365.24219 days, then with a mean radius to the sun of 93,000,000 miles, he might have found a megalithic yard of circumference = 93,000,000st. m. x 2 x pi x 63360²

365.24219days x 24hrs x 3600secs x 36000= 32.59²= 2.71ft

However, there is yet **another and more interesting possibility**. When the Earth’s orbit has a diameter corresponding to the exact figure for the speed of light (186,282.6 miles/second from the British Astronomical Association Handbook), then by the same equation the megalithic yard would have a value of

Speed of light 186282.6 x pi x 63360²

solar year 365.24219 x 24 x 360 x 360

= 32.639² = 2.719ft which is the exact figure found by Prof A. Thom for the stone circles of the British Isles.

At some time, someone changed the Andean calendar from 10 months of 36 days (20 fortnights of 18 days) to one of 12 months of 30 days….. When that happened we don’t know, but perhaps this Mandala glyph (near Nazca) was an attempt to sort it out or something like that.

There seems to be some relationship between lines drawn from the centre passing through the peghole on the circles so that a number on the inner circle become a different number on another circle etc. The innermost circle is divided into 80 but the next circle divided into 96, the third circle from the centre has double the number of the first ring and so on. I will have to print a copy to study a bit more…..

There’s certainly something there to spend lots more time on, especially now we have a better and dimensioned plan thanks to Gilbert deJong.

I hope my comments may stimulate you to other thoughts/discoveries, the 9 Remen/10Sumerian feet is a good one and easy to remember.

*Copyright 2012 Jim Allen*

Don’t miss another post by Jim Allen : https://blog.world-mysteries.com/strange-artifacts/atlantis-and-the-persian-empire/

## PS5 Google Earth Challenge

Find the following Nazca lines using Google Earth and send comments with location for each drawing

Here’s a challenge Find the following Nazca Lines:

1. Killer Whale

2. Wing

3. Baby Condor

4. Bird

5. Animal

6. Spiral

7. Lizard

8. Tree

9. Hands

10. Spiral

11. Spider

12. Flower

13. Dog

14. Astronaut

15. Triangle

16. Whale

17. Trapazoids

18. Star

19. Pelican

20. Bird

21. Trapazoid

22. Hummingbird

23. Trapezoid

24. Monkey

Here are few examples (Google Earth “kmz” file) to get you started:

- Monkey, Google Earth coordinates: 14º42’26.66″ S – 75º08’20.38″
- Astronaut, Google Earth coordinates: 14º44’42.79″ S – 75º04’47.08″
- Spider, Google Earth coordinates: 14º41’39.63″ S – 75º07’21.72″
- Parrot, Google Earth coordinates: 14º41’23.60″ S – 75º06’29.41″
- Hummingbird, Google Earth coordinates: 14º41’32.18″ S – 75º08’57.05″

[…] “A large square measures 180 feet across while an inner circle spans the same diameter. Several smaller squares, about 20 feet wide, appear to have been etched in the landscape along with an assortment of strategically placed holes….” Read more about the Nazca Lines. […]