The Great Pyramid has lent its name as a sort of by-word for paradoxes; and, as moths to a candle, so are theorisers attracted to it. The very fact that the subject was so generally familiar, and yet so little was accurately known about it, made it the more enticing; there were plenty of descriptions from which to choose, and yet most of them were so hazy that their support could be claimed for many varying theories.
— Sir Flinders Petrie, The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh
Introduction
The Red Pyramid at Dashur has the second largest base of any pyramid in Egypt (only slightly smaller then the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza); each side measures 220m (722 feet). However, with it’s sides sloping at 43°22?, it is substantially shorter at 104 meters (343 feet). Nevertheless, it is the fourth highest pyramid ever built in Egypt, with almost 160 layers of stone. Stripped from its limestone casing, this pyramid reveals the reddish sandstone used to build most of its core. This explains its modern-day name, the Red Pyramid. Its Ancient Egyptian name was “The Shining One”.
The severe structural problems encountered while building the Bent Pyramid South of Dashur, led Snofru (Sneferu) to build yet another pyramid, at a small distance to the North. Significantly, the Red Pyramid was the first successful, true, cased Pyramid built in Egypt, ushering in the era of the Giza style pyramids.
Fig. 1 The Red Pyramid of Snofru (Sneferu) near Dashur
Built by Khufu’s father, Snefru, what really makes this pyramid special today is the lack of crowds and circus atmosphere that plagues the Giza Plateau, along with the fact that it can currently be entered without limitation.
Fig. 1b Pyramids of Dashur (fragment of the panorama). Click on the link above to view the entire panorama (JPG – 380KB).
Note: Remember to enlarge image if you have the “automatic image resizing” enabled. Photo courtesy of Frank Dörnenburg
Tura limestone was used as casing stone to cover the pyramid. Though some casing still remains, most has been removed. However, about every twentieth casing stone discovered had inscriptions on the back sides. Some were inscribed with the cartouche of Snefru while others had inscriptions in red paint naming the various work crews, such as the “Green Gang” or the “Western Gang”. Snefru’s cartouche was an important discovery, particularly since there are no identifying inscriptions within the pyramid.
East of the pyramid is what remains of a mortuary temple, as well as the first capstone (Pyramidion) ever found belonging to an Old Kingdom Pyramid. It was recovered in fragments and reconstructed. The mortuary temple itself, though nothing much remains, is significant because Snefru pioneered the east west alignment of Egyptian temples to match the path of the sun.
The Red Pyramid History
The inscriptions found on the back of the casing stones gave us clues to how long the pyramid took to build and also revealed the sequence of work that took place. An inscription found at the base of this pyramid has shown that work had started during the year of the 15th cattle count of Snofru’s reign. Since the cattle counts were held at irregular intervals during this reign, this refers to somewhere between Snofru’s 15th and 30th year. It is very likely that the pyramid construction was started at the time when structural problems encountered when building the Bent Pyramid forced the builders to temporarily abandon this project.
Interestingly, a second inscription found 30 courses of stones higher is dated 2 to 4 years later than the inscription found at the base. This gives an idea about the speed at which the Egyptians were able to build a monument like this pyramid. Within four years, 30 percent of the pyramid had been completed, and the entire pyramid was finished in about seventeen years.
There is little doubt that Snofru was finally buried in this pyramid, although the fragments of human remains found inside the burial chamber are not certain to have been his. Interestingly, during the reign of Pepi I of the 6th Dynasty, this pyramid along with its southern neighbor, the Bent Pyramid, was considered as one estate.
The Geometry of the Red Pyramid
The Red Pyramid was built with a slope of only 43°22?. Its base length is 220 meters, that is 32 meters more than the Bent Pyramid. Its height is the same as the Bent Pyramid.
Basic Dimensions:
- base length: 220 m
- slope: 43^{o} 22?
- height: 104 m
- burial chamber: 4.18 x 8.55 m (height: 14.67 m)
Fig. 2 The Red Pyramid and its internal structure.
Source: Lehner, Complete Pyramids, p. 104-105.
The broader base and lower slope were intended to better spread the mass of this pyramid and thus avoid the structural problems that had temporarily halted works on the Bent Pyramid.
The internal structure of this pyramid is a further continuation of the pyramid at Meidum and the Bent Pyramid. Contrary to this latter monument, however, there is only one internal structure, making it a lot more simple.
The entrance is located 28 m high up in the Northern face of the pyramid.
A descending passage (at an angle of 27 degrees) leads down for 62.63 m to a short horizontal corridor 7.4m long. This is followed by two almost identical antechambers with corbelled roofs. Both antechambers measure 3.65 by 8.36 m and are 12.31 m high.
The burial chamber can only be reached via a short passage which opens high up in the wall of the second antechamber. The burial chamber measures 4.18 by 8.55 m. Its corbelled roof goes up to a height of 14.67 m. It is located well above ground level, in the core of the pyramid.
The chapel built against the Eastern face of the pyramid was finished hastily, probably after the death of Snofru. It is somewhat more elaborate than the eastern chapel of the Red Pyramid or the pyramid at Meidum in that it houses an inner sanctuary, flanked by two smaller chapels.
There is no trace of a causeway leading down to the Valley Temple, of which few remains were found at the end of the 19th century.
In fact, all three of the chambers in this pyramid have corbelled ceilings, with between eleven and fourteen layers. Even with some two million tones of stone above, this ceiling design is so strong that there are no cracks or structural problems even today.
Fig. 3 The Red Pyramid, Corbelled Ceiling
A short passage on the south side of the first chamber leads to a second chamber. These first two chambers are at ground level, while a third chamber is higher, built within the masonry of the pyramid itself.
The second chamber is unusual in that it lies directly under the apex of the pyramid, or center point of the pyramid. It is one of the only pyramids in Egypt to have this design layout. The final chamber, with its entrance passageway about 25 feet above the floor of the second chamber, can be accessed by a staircase (of modern construction).
Egyptologists believe the final chamber was intended to be the actual burial chamber. The floor has been excavated in an unsuccessful attempt to find other passageways.
Design of the Red Pyramid
It appears that the Red Pyramid design was based on the pentagon.
Each triangular segment of a pentagon has 72° at the central point (360°/5=72°).
Using 4 of the 5 triangles of a pentagon a pyramid can be made
(with a base equal to the base of the pentagon’s side)
that will have the same proportions as the Red Pyramid.
Fig. 4a
The pentagon and the red pyramid – perspective view.
© 2004 by World-Mysteries.com
Fig. 4b
The pentagon and the red pyramid – top view.
© 2004 by World-Mysteries.com
Using very basic reasoning we can see that the angle of the slope of the pyramid
(? ) can be found from this equation cos ? = tan 36°, which gives ?= 43°24?.
This theoretical slope angle of 43°24? ( 43.402680°) is practically identical
to the measured slope angle of the Red Pyramid: 43° 22?.
* * *
The Bent Pyramid
Two slope angles of the Bent Pyramid match a design based on a HEXAGON (for the lower part)
and a PENTAGON (for the upper part) principles:
The Bent Pyramid – slope angle: |
Measured |
Theoretical |
Lower part |
54° 27? | 54° 44? |
Upper part |
43° 22? | 43° 24? |
Note: For hexagon: cos ? = tan 30° –> ?= 54° 44?
Fig. 5 The Bent Pyramid
Fig. 6 The hexagon principle gives the slope angle
for the base of the Bent Pyramid.
© 2004 by World-Mysteries.com
Image Source: http://www.invisibletemple.com/geometry1.html
Enter the Bent Pyramid! _{****/****}
PS Simple method of drawing regular pentagon
Copyright 2017 A. Sokolowski
For the angle of the Great Pyramid, any theory of the base, combined with any theory of the height, yields a theoretic angle; but the angles actually proposed are the following (Source: Page 184, The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh by Sir W.M.Flinders Petrie 1883):
Angle of casing measured 2 height vertical to 3 height diagonal |
51º 52? ± 2? (51.867) 51º 51? 20? 51º 40? 16.2? |
Fig. 7 The Great Pyramid design principle
Related link: Geometry of the Great Pyramid
Links and Resources
- A Comparative Geometric Analysis of the Heights and Bases of the Great Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan
- http://www.secretacademy.com/pages/greatpyramid.htm
- A Brief Introduction to Ancient Metrology
- The Golden Ratio & Squaring the Circle in the Great Pyramid
- Mid-Atlantic Geomancy – Sacred Geometry
- http://members.optushome.com.au/fmetrol/main/isopsephia.html#code – Greek Isopsephia
- aiwaz.net_institute – Great Pyramid and Giza plateau
- More Related Links
- The Great Pyramid
- Pyramids – Construction Theories
- http://home.hiwaay.net/~jalison/afterword.html
- http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html
- http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/red.htm
- Frank Dörnenburg
Pyramid Temple says
The majority of Mayan pyramids are temples to the spirits and not the burial tombs like the great pyramids of Egypt. These pyramids temple typically comprised one or more rooms. However, the areas were so confined that they may well simply have been used during ritualistic occasions and were not designed for community use. The ‘Ziggurats’ were considered as the ‘Home the Gods’ and were filled in as terraced step pyramid with continuously pulling back floors or levels.
MP2 says
Ok, last one.
The 3 bullet mystery in finding the 8th thabit prime number is solved. Msm told 2 bullets landed in a fuel tank, and one bullet he used into his head with handgun.
So the total number in the bullet database, told from MSM is exactly 5940+200+2+1 = 6143 (8th thabit prime number)
Fun sidenote, the 11 th prime number divided between the highest found tenth thabit prime number is 16,16
MP2 says
Last one, for the fun of it.
—————-
10th thabit prime number in the gambing habbits?
—————
This is a very large number: 51539607551
—————
MSM says that in a testimony Paddock said he gambled 14 hours on average in 365 days. = 5110 hours in a year
MSM wants people to know that he gambled at a rate of 100k each hour (1000 rounds an hour x 100 dollar)
5110 hours times 100k = 511 million dollar, or 51,1 billion cents.
MSM says he earned 5 million the year before the testimony, or 500 million cents
So he put in 51,1 billion cents and got out 51,6 billion cents.
A lawyer asked Paddock what his max variation was, Paddock responded with “1 million” (or 100 million cents).
51,6 billion minus a variation of 100 mln cents = 51,5 billion
Whats a number between 51,5 billion and 51,6 billion?
> The 10th thabit prime number. 51539607551 , or 51,5396 billion.
MP2 says
Freestyling, add on on last post
———————-
8th thabit prime number in the bullets?.
—————————–
MSM told he fired at a rate of 90 rounds per 10 seconds, that’s 540 each minute x 11 minutes = 5940 bullets.
Paddock shot 200 bullets through the door, if he fired 3 bullets with his handgun, then the total is
5940+200+3 = 6143 (8th thabit prime number)
——————–
9th thabit prime number, freestyling.
—————————
This is a very high number: 786431
Paddock did 200 wired transactions according to the f.b.i. and 1 high amount of 100k at the end.
If the 200 wired transactions were on average 3432,15 dollar (to stay under the radar, more than 5k can be flagged, more than 10k will be flagged).
Then the total wired amount would be 786431 dollar (9th thabit prime number)
———————————
What is thabit prime numbers?
___________________
Islamic invented sequence of numbers, that are also prime numbers, maybe aso used in occult societies, not sure.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thabit_number
First numbers of the sequence are all over the place, when examining subdatasets and totals.
The numbers: 2, 5, 11, 23, 47, 191, 383, 6143, 786431
MP2 says
All numbers that are told in the MSM, related to the Las Vegas terror attack (or deepstate hoax), 3 main datasets.
—————
1. Booking data, exactly how it’s told in MSM, right after the attack.
—————
Blackstone Hotel/Casino in Chicago
(a1) 2017 08 01 = 19
(d1) 2017 08 06 = 24
——————–
Hotel/Casino The Ogden in Las Vegas
(a2) 2017 09 17 = 27
(d2) 2017 09 22 = 23
——————–
(a3) 2017 09 21 = 22
(d3) 2017 09 23 = 24
——————–
(a4) 2017 09 24 = 25
(d4) 2017 09 28 = 29
——————–
Hotel/Casino Mandalay in Las Vegas
(a5) 2017 09 28 = 29
——————— +
Sum (19+24+27+23+22+24+25+29+29) = 222
Sidenote: the database consists of 11, 5 and 2 day bookings, and there is a 47 day difference between First Chicago and first Hotel Oxygen in Vegas booking. Time between 2nd and 3th hotel = 11 days That are all “thabit prime” numbers, explained later.
——————————
Analysis of all other dates and number series, published in MSM
1. Bought a last hunter rifle at 2017-09-28, that weapon was not found
2017-09-28 = 29 (lucas prime number)
2. Shooting times+date database, start and end
2017-10-01-22:05 = 21 (shooting starts)
2017-10-01-22:15 = 22 (shooting stops)
——————- +
Total = 43 (14th prime number)
3. Found Weapons, all numbers from the media
Media initially said 23 found in hotelroom , 19 in his house and 47 total. (so 5 in other house, but the MSM didn’t say that)
19, 23, 47 = 89 (fibonacci prime number)
————————————–
Totals of extra dates and numbers sequences that were told in the MSM
————————————–
29+43+89 = 161 (numbers of Phi, the golden/god ratio or 1.61, and mirror of 6th thabit prime number)
————————————-
Totals of all data
————————————
When we add the 222 from the booking numbers we get
161+222=383
383 = 7th thabit prime, 76th prime
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thabit_number
Francesco says
The Bent Pyramid had NO STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS!!!!! IT WAS INTENDED TO BE LIKE THAT! A couple of years ago there was a documentary on Channel 4, I can’t remember how’s called, anyway one of the most brilliant engineer on the planet said THAT IT WAS A SUCCESS!!! Stop saying such a non sense! Graham you shouldn’t publish such a crap on your website, please!!!