Since 1942, every American president has used military force without a declaration of war
A declaration of war is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation and another. The document Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications gives an extensive listing and summary of statutes which are automatically engaged upon the US declaring war.
For the United States, Article One, Section Eight of the Constitution says “Congress shall have power to … declare War.” However, that passage provides no specific format for what form legislation must have in order to be considered a “declaration of war” nor does the Constitution itself use this term. In the courts, the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, in Doe v. Bush, said: “[T]he text of the October Resolution itself spells out justifications for a war and frames itself as an ‘authorization’ of such a war.” in effect saying an authorization suffices for declaration and what some may view as a formal Congressional “Declaration of War” was not required by the Constitution.
The last time the United States formally declared war, using specific terminology, on any nation was in 1942, when war was declared against Axis-allied Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania, because President Franklin Roosevelt thought it was improper to engage in hostilities against a country without a formal declaration of war.
Since then, every American president has used military force without a declaration of war.
Undeclared wars and
The United States has engaged in extended military combat that was authorized by Congress.
In many instances, the United States has engaged in extended military engagements that were authorized by United Nations Security Council Resolutions and funded by appropriations from Congress
Read More: Wikipedia
US Presidents in Chronological Order and Their Wars – Summary
|28||Wilson, (Thomas) Woodrow||1856-1924||1913-1921||World War I (1914-1918)
signed the Federal Reserve Act into law
League of Nations
Awarded 1919 Nobel Peace Prize
|29||Harding, Warren Gamaliel||1865-1923||1921-1923||–|
|30||Coolidge, (John) Calvin||1872-1933||1923-1929||–|
|31||Hoover, Herbert Clark||1874-1964||1929-1933||–|
|32||Roosevelt, Franklin Delano||1882-1945||1933-1945||World War II (1939-1945)|
|33||Truman, Harry S.||1884-1972||1945-1953||atomic bombing of Japan (1945)
Cold War with Soviet Union
United Nations, Marshall Plan (1948)
Korean War (1950-1953)
|34||Eisenhower, Dwight David
|1890-1969||1953-1961||Cold War with Soviet Union continues|
|35||Kennedy, John Fitzgerald||1917-1963||1961-1963||established Peace Corps (1961)
Bay of Pigs incident
|36||Johnson, Lyndon Baines||1908-1973||1963-1969||escalated involvement in Vietnam War (1954-1975)|
|37||Nixon, Richard Milhous||1913-1994||1969-1974||“War on Drugs” (1971)
visited China (1972)
détente with U.S.S.R.
eventual withdrawal of U.S. troops from Southeast Asia
|38||Ford, Gerald Rudolph.||1913-||1974-1977||Ford had not started new wars…
granted a presidential pardon to President Richard Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal.
and created Rockefeller Commission**
|39||Carter, James Earl, Jr. “Jimmy.”||1924-||1977-1981||Camp David accords between Egypt and Israel (1979)|
|40||Reagan, Ronald Wilson||1911-||1981-1989||military involvements in
Grenada, Central America, Lebanon, Libya
Cold War subsides (Glasnost with U.S.S.R.)
Multinational Force in Lebanon
Forces withdrawn in 1984
|41||Bush, George Herbert Walker||1924-||1989-1993||Persian Gulf War I with Iraq (1990)|
|42||Clinton, William Jefferson “Bill”
(vice president Albert Gore)
|1946-||1993-2001||Persian Gulf War II with Iraq (1999)
“Bosnian War” Serbia vs. Bosnia, Kosovo, NATO…
|43||Bush, George W. “Dubya”
(vice president Dick Cheney)
“War on Terror”***
Afgan War against the Talliban and Al Qaeda (2001…)
Iraqi Invasion and Occupation (2003…)
|44||Obama, Barack Hussein II
(vice president J.Biden)
|1961-||2009-2017||American-led intervention in Syria
Continuing legacy of all
G. W. Bush Administration wars.First Libyan Civil War2011 military intervention in LibyaOperation Odyssey DawnOperation Unified Protector
|45||Donald John Trump||1946-||2017 – Now||The current president of the United States|
The Federal Reserve
The Federal Reserve was created on December 23, 1913, when President Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Reserve Act into law.
The Federal Reserve Banks are not a part of the federal government.
* The origins of the petrodollar system go back to the Bretton Woods Agreement, which replaced the gold standard with the U.S. dollar as the reserve currency.
Under the agreement, the U.S. dollar was pegged to gold, while other global currencies were pegged to the U.S. dollar. But because of massive stagflation, President Nixon announced in 1971 that the greenback would no longer be exchanged for gold to boost economic growth for the U.S. That led to the creation of the petrodollar system, where the U.S. and Saudi Arabia agreed to set oil prices in U.S. dollars. That meant any other country that purchased oil from the Saudi government would have to exchange its currency into U.S. dollars before completing the sale. That led the remaining OPEC countries to follow suit and price their oil in U.S. currency… [ this policy explains real reasons for wars with Iraq and Libya ]
Richard Nixon and George H.W Bush
Thirteen years before becoming the President of the United States,
George H.W. Bush served as the 11th Director of Central Intelligence (CIA).
** Prior to Ford’s presidency, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had illegally assembled files on domestic anti-war activists. In the aftermath of Watergate, CIA Director William Colby put together a report of all of the CIA’s domestic activities, and much of the report became public, beginning with the publication of a December 1974 article by investigative journalist Seymour Hersh. The revelations sparked outrage among the public and members of Congress. In response to growing pressure to investigate and reform the CIA, Ford created the Rockefeller Commission. The Rockefeller Commission marked the first time that a presidential commission was established to investigate the national security apparatus. The Rockefeller Commission’s report, submitted in June 1975, generally defended the CIA, although it did note that “the CIA has engaged in some activities that should be criticized and not permitted to happen again.”
The press strongly criticized the commission for failing to include a section on the CIA’s assassination plots.
The War on Terror
*** The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign launched by the United States government (George W. Bush) after the September 11 attacks (this event was needed to gain public approval for the “War on Terror” ).
A research team at the University of Alaska’s engineering department has concluded that fire did not cause the collapse of WTC 7 on 9/11 and concluded that “the only way “near-simultaneous failure of every column in the building” can occur is through controlled demolition (and this remarkable finding is not reported in the presstitute media.)
Gen. Wesley Clark (retired) claims that ten days after 9 11 military invasions of Iraq and Libya, with several other Middle Eastern countries, were already planned and settled beforehand. Now we have the explanation for the Iraq war, the Libyan war, and any of the other wars that are coming in the near future. It would be wise for us to keep our eyes on Syria, Iran, Sudan, Somalia, Lebanon, the other countries Clark gives on the list for a planned western invasion.
Read More: https://blog.world-mysteries.com/ancient-writings/who-wrote-that-script/
Interview with Aaron Russo ( including comment about the war on terror ):
Criticism of the war on terror focused on its morality, efficiency, and cost; The notion of a “war” against “terrorism” has proven contentious, with critics charging that it has been exploited by participating governments to pursue long-standing policy/military objectives, reduce civil liberties, and infringe upon human rights. Critics also assert that the term “war” is not appropriate in this context (much like the term “War on Drugs”) since terror is not an identifiable enemy and it is unlikely that international terrorism can be brought to an end by military means.
Vice President Dick Cheney, played a leading behind-the-scenes role in the George W. Bush administration’s response to the September 11 attacks and coordination of the Global War on Terrorism. He was an early proponent of invading Iraq and defender of the Administration’s anti-terrorism record. Cheney was often criticized for the Bush Administration’s policies regarding the campaign against terrorism, and for his support of wiretapping by the National Security Agency (NSA) and of torture.
PS Destabilisation of the USA
Former KGB Agent, Yuri Bezmenov, Warns America About Socialist Subversion
Former KGB agent interview in 1984 explaining his job to destabilise USA:
PS List of post WWII wars involving the United States of America
The entire list is very long ( at least 40 military involvements without declaration of war )…
Notice that none of these wars had involved USA territory (location).
Here are just post-WWII wars, invasions and military conflicts involving the USA
(1950–1953) Part of the Cold War
Laotian Civil War
(1953–1975) Part of the Indochina Wars and Cold War
(1958) Location: Lebanon
Bay of Pigs Invasion
(1961) Part of the Cold War
Simba rebellion, Operation Dragon Rouge
(1964) Part of the Congo Crisis and the Cold War
(1955–1964, 1965–1973, 1974–1975)
Part of the Cold War and Indochina Wars
Location: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos
Communist insurgency in Thailand
(1965–1983) Part of the Cold War
Korean DMZ Conflict
(1966–1969) Part of the Korean conflict and the Cold War
Location: Korean Demilitarized Zone
Dominican Civil War
(1965–1966) Location: Dominican Republic
Insurgency in Bolivia
(1966–1967) Part of the Cold War
Cambodian Civil War
(1967–1975) Part of the Cold War
War in South Zaire
(1978) Part of the Cold War
Gulf of Sidra encounter
(1981) Location: Gulf of Sidra
Multinational Intervention in Lebanon
(1982–1984) Location: Lebanon
Invasion of Grenada
(1983) Part of the Cold War
Action in the Gulf of Sidra
(1986) Location: Gulf of Sidra
Bombing of Libya
(1986) Location: Libya
(1987–1988) Location: Persian Gulf
(1989) Location: Mediterranean Sea
Invasion of Panama
(1989–1990) Location: Panama
(1990–1991) Location: Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Israel
Iraqi No-Fly Zone Enforcement Operations
(1991–2003) Location: Iraq
First U.S. Intervention in the Somali Civil War
(1992–1995) Part of the Somali civil war (1991–present)
(1992–1995) Part of the Yugoslav Wars
Location: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Intervention in Haiti
(1994–1995) Location: Haiti
(1998–1999) Part of the Yugoslav Wars
Operation Infinite Reach
(1998) Location: Sudan and Afghanistan
War in Afghanistan
(2001–present) Part of the War on Terror and the War in Afghanistan (1978–present)
2003 invasion of Iraq
(2003) Part of the War on Terror
(2003–2011) Part of the War on Terror
War in North-West Pakistan
(2004–present) Part of the War on Terror
Second U.S. Intervention in the Somali Civil War
(2007–present) Part of the Somali Civil War (1991–present) and the War on Terror
Location: Somalia and Northeastern Kenya
Operation Ocean Shield
(2009–2016) Part of the War on Terror
Location: Indian Ocean
International intervention in Libya
(2011) Part of the Libyan Crisis and the First Libyan Civil War
Operation Observant Compass
(2011–2017) Part of the War on Terror
American-led intervention in Iraq
(2014–present) Part of Operation Inherent Resolve, the Iraqi Civil War, the Spillover of the Syrian Civil War, the War on Terror and the International ISIS campaign
American-led intervention in Syria
(2014–present) Part of Operation Inherent Resolve, the Syrian Civil War, the War on Terror and the International ISIS campaign
Yemeni Civil War
(2015–present) Part of the War on Terror and the International ISIS Campaign
American intervention in Libya
(2015–present) Part of the Second Libyan Civil War, the War on Terror, and the International ISIS Campaign
Timeline of United States military operations
List of wars involving the United States
List of wars by death toll
This list of wars by death toll includes all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by the war. These numbers usually include the deaths of military personnel which are the direct results of battle or other military wartime actions, as well as the wartime/war-related deaths of soldiers which are the results of war-induced epidemics, famines, atrocities, genocide, etc.
NOTE: “Collateral damage”- civilian casualties caused by war – is many times higher but not included in this count.
Human Cost of the Post-9/11 Wars
How many people have been killed in the post-9/11 war on terror? The question is a contentious one, as there has been no formal accounting for the deadly cost of the initial U.S. interventions in Iraq and Afghanistan, not to mention the secondary conflicts that continue to wreak havoc across the Middle East and the opaque, covert war still expanding across Asia and Africa.
But even as the U.S. government evades responsibility for the human cost of its overseas endeavors, some researchers are determined to keep count.
Brown University’s Costs of War Project this month released a new estimate of the total death toll from the U.S. wars in three countries: Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. The numbers, while conservatively estimated, are staggering. Brown’s researchers estimate that at least 480,000 people have been directly killed by violence over the course of these conflicts, more than 244,000 of them civilians. In addition to those killed by direct acts violence, the number of indirect deaths — those resulting from disease, displacement, and the loss of critical infrastructure — is believed to be several times higher, running into the millions.
The report, which uses data spanning from October 2001 to October 2018, compiles previous analysis from nongovernmental organizations, U.S. and foreign government data, and media reports. In a statement, the report authors said the figures still just “scratches the surface of the human consequences of 17 years of war.” Due to challenges in data collection, their total estimate is an undercount, they added. The study also focuses on only the three countries where the United States launched its so-called war on terror. If the conflicts in Libya, Yemen, Somalia, or Syria — where the U.S. has conducted major military operations in recent years — had been included, the death toll would likely be significantly higher.
All told, between 480,000 and 507,000 people have been killed in the United States’ post-9/11 wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. This tally of the counts and estimates of direct deaths caused by war violence does not include the more than 500,000 deaths from the war in Syria, raging since 2011, which the US joined in August 2014.
- Former KGB agent interview in 1984 explaining his job to destabilise USA:
The CIA Controversies
The CIA has been called into question for, at times, using torture, funding and training of groups and organizations that would later participate in killing of civilians and other non-combatants and would try or succeed in overthrowing democratically elected governments, human experimentation, and targeted killings and assassinations. The CIA has also been accused of a lack of financial and whistleblower controls which has led to waste and fraud [ and top secret projects ].
[ Worth a Look: https://blog.world-mysteries.com/science/mind-control/
It is amazing how easily politicians and big business manipulate people to do what they want ( and, more often than not, fraudulently.)
At the heart of all this deception are experts who know how to manipulate the perceptions of the public by taking advantage of the principles of psychology.]
During Bush’s year in charge of the CIA, the U.S. national security apparatus actively supported Operation Condor operations and right-wing military dictatorships in Latin America. According to John Dinges, author of The Condor Years (The New Press 2003), documents released in 2015 revealed a CIA report dated April 28, 1978 that showed the agency by then had knowledge that U.S.-backed Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet ordered the assassination of Orlando Letelier, a leading political opponent living in exile in the United States.
The Institute on Medicine as a Profession and the non-profit organization Open Society Foundations reviewed public records into the medical professions alleging complicity in the abuse of prisoners suspected of terrorism who were held in U.S. custody during the years after 9/11.” The reports found that health professionals “Aided cruel and degrading interrogations; Helped devise and implement practices designed to maximize disorientation and anxiety so as to make detainees more malleable for interrogation; and Participated in the application of excruciatingly painful methods of force-feeding of mentally competent detainees carrying out hunger strikes” are not all that surprising. Medical professionals were sometimes used at black sites to monitor detainee health. Whether or not the physicians were compelled is an open question.
Other human rights issues that are controversial include the case of Edward Snowden. However, the significance of human right does not fall into this case regarding whether Snowden received his fair trial or not. Rather, the human rights associated with the Snowden leaks are regarding the types of document Snowden released. Snowden released a significant amount of information on the U.S. government’s surveillance program of its citizens to The Washington Post as well as foreign news reporters.
Read More ( Source: Wikipedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_CIA_controversies )
- 1Domestic wiretapping
- 2Extraordinary rendition
- 3Security failures
- 4Counterintelligence failures
- 5Human rights concerns
- 6External investigations and document releases
- 7Influencing public opinion and law enforcement
- 8CIA’s recruitment of Nazis
- 9Drug trafficking
- 10Alleged lying to Congress
- 11Covert programs hidden from Congress
- 12Intelligence Committee investigation
- 13Improper search of computers used by Senate investigators
- 14Resignation of officials and agents who would not work for Donald Trump
- 15WikiLeaks’ disclosure of CIA’s cyber tools
PS It seems that coming soon “Contact Tracing” laws ( sparked by the coronavirus event ) and mandatory vaccination will accelerate implementation of the dystopian surveillance agenda without opposition from American citizens.
PS President Obama Awards the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Watch this video in the context of 2017 – 2020 events