There are “conspiracy theory” explanations that can no longer be dismissed as the paranoid delusions of far-right crackpots. Indeed, they have become a necessary response to a risky and increasingly globalized world, in which everything is connected but nothing adds up.
Anyone who engages critically with the phenomenon of conspiracy theories soon encounters a conundrum.
Actual conspiracies occur quite regularly. Political assassinations, scandals and cover-ups, terrorist attacks and a lot of everyday government activity involves the collusion of multiple people in the attempt to bring about a desired outcome.
This poses a crucial question. How do we differentiate between genuine plots and conspiracies, and those that we usually associate with the term “conspiracy theory” – namely an erroneous or misguided way of thinking? How do we know, for example, when questions about the origins of coronavirus are legitimate concerns and when they should be dismissed as a conspiracy theory
Conspiracy theories have a long history, but the actual term “conspiracy theory” emerged much more recently. It was only a few decades ago that the term took on the derogatory connotations it has today, where to call someone a conspiracy theorist functions as an insult.
So it may come as no surprise that there is even a conspiracy theory about the origins of the label. This conspiracy theory claims that the CIA invented the term in 1967 to disqualify those who questioned the official version of John F Kennedy’s assassination and doubted that his killer, Lee Harvey Oswald, had acted alone.
There are even two versions of this conspiracy theory. The more extreme version claims that the CIA literally invented the term in the sense that the words “conspiracy” and “theory” had never been used before in combination. A more moderate version acknowledges that the term existed before, but claims that the CIA intentionally created its negative connotations and so turned the label into a tool of political propaganda.
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Definition of conspiracy
noun, plural con·spir·a·cies.
- a theory that rejects the standard ( official ) explanation for an event and instead credits a covert group or organization with carrying out a secret plot: e.g. One popular conspiracy theory accuses environmentalists of sabotage in last year’s mine collapse.
- a belief that a particular unexplained event was caused by such a covert group: e.g. A number of conspiracy theories have already emerged, purporting to explain last week’s disappearance of a commercial flight over international waters.
- the idea that many important political events or economic and social trends are the products of deceptive plots that are largely unknown to the general public: e.g. The more I learn about the activities of intelligence agencies, the less far-fetched I find many geopolitical conspiracy theories.
A conspiracy theory is an explanation for an event or situation that invokes a conspiracy by sinister and powerful groups, often political in motivation, when other explanations are more probable. The term has a negative connotation, implying that the appeal to a conspiracy is based on prejudice or insufficient evidence.
Conspiracy theories resist falsification and are reinforced by circular reasoning: both evidence against the conspiracy and an absence of evidence for it are re-interpreted as evidence of its truth, whereby the conspiracy becomes a matter of faith rather than something that can be proved or disproved. […]
The physicist David Robert Grimes estimated the time it would take for a conspiracy to be exposed based on the number of people involved.
His calculations used data from the PRISM surveillance program, the Tuskegee syphilis experiment, and the FBI forensic scandal.
Grimes estimated that:
- a Moon landing hoax would require the involvement of 411,000 people and would be exposed within 3.68 years;
- climate-change fraud would require 405,000 people and would be exposed within 3.70 years;
- a vaccination conspiracy would require a minimum of 22,000 people (without drug companies) and would be exposed within at least 3.15 years and at most 34.78 years depending on the number involved;
- a conspiracy to suppress a cure for cancer would require 714,000 people and would be exposed within 3.17 years.
Conspiracy theories may help people identify governmental deceptions, particularly in repressive societies, and encourage government transparency. Real conspiracies are normally revealed by people working within the system, such as whistleblowers and honest journalists.
A conspiracy theory may take any matter as its subject, but certain subjects attract greater interest than others.
Favored subjects include famous deaths and assassinations, morally dubious government activities, suppressed technologies, and “false flag” terrorism. Among the longest-standing and most widely recognized conspiracy theories are notions concerning the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the 1969 Apollo moon landings, and the 9/11 terrorist attacks, as well as numerous theories pertaining to alleged plots for world domination by various groups both real and imaginary.
Types of Conspiracy Theories
A conspiracy theory can be local or international, focused on single events or covering multiple incidents and entire countries, regions and periods of history.
Walker’s five kinds
Jesse Walker (2013) has identified five kinds of conspiracy theories:
- The “Enemy Outside” refers to theories based on figures alleged to be scheming against a community from without.
- The “Enemy Within” finds the conspirators lurking inside the nation, indistinguishable from ordinary citizens.
- The “Enemy Above” involves powerful people manipulating events for their own gain.
- The “Enemy Below” features the lower classes working to overturn the social order.
- The “Benevolent Conspiracies” are angelic forces that work behind the scenes to improve the world and help people.
Barkun’s three types
Michael Barkun has identified three classifications of conspiracy theory:
- Event conspiracy theories. This refers to limited and well-defined events. Examples may include such conspiracies theories as those concerning the Kennedy assassination, 9/11, and the spread of AIDS.
- Systemic conspiracy theories. The conspiracy is believed to have broad goals, usually conceived as securing control of a country, a region, or even the entire world. The goals are sweeping, whilst the conspiratorial machinery is generally simple: a single, evil organization implements a plan to infiltrate and subvert existing institutions. This is a common scenario in conspiracy theories that focus on the alleged machinations of Jews, Freemasons, Communism, or the Catholic Church.
- Superconspiracy theories. For Barkun, such theories link multiple alleged conspiracies together hierarchically. At the summit is a distant but all-powerful evil force. His cited examples are the ideas of David Icke and Milton William Cooper.
Rothbard: shallow vs. deep
Murray Rothbard argues in favor of a model that contrasts “deep” conspiracy theories to “shallow” ones.
- According to Rothbard, a “shallow” theorist observes an event and asks Cui bono? (“Who benefits?”), jumping to the conclusion that a posited beneficiary is responsible for covertly influencing events.
- On the other hand, the “deep” conspiracy theorist begins with a hunch and then seeks out evidence. Rothbard describes this latter activity as a matter of confirming with certain facts one’s initial theory.
List of conspiracy theories
Many conspiracy theories relate to clandestine government plans and elaborate murder plots.
- 2Business and industry
- 3Deaths and disappearances
- 4Economics and society
- 6Ethnicity, race and religion
- 7Extraterrestrials and UFOs
- 8Government, politics and conflict
- 8.2False flag operations
- 8.4Sandy Hook
- 8.6Jeffrey Epstein death conspiracy theories
- 8.8African National Congress
- 8.9Barack Obama
- 8.10Cultural Marxism
- 8.11Deep state
- 8.12Sutherland Springs
- 8.13Trump and Ukraine
- 8.14October Surprise Conspiracy Theory
- 8.15Biden-Ukraine Conspiracy Theory
- 10Science and technology
- 11Space agencies
Alex Jones referenced numerous conspiracy theories for convincing his supporters to endorse Ron Paul over Mitt Romney and Donald Trump over Hillary Clinton.
WEF Agenda: Truth hidden in the plain site
The World Economic Forum (WEF), based in Cologny, Geneva Canton, Switzerland, is an international NGO, founded in 1971. The WEF’s mission is stated as “committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic, and other leaders of society to shape global, regional, and industry agendas”.
The WEF hosts an annual meeting at the end of January in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland.
The meeting brings together some 3,000 business leaders, international political leaders, economists, celebrities and journalists for up to five days to discuss global issues, across 500 sessions.
The World Economic Forum provides a platform for the world’s 1,000 leading companies to shape a better future. As a membership organization, the Forum engages businesses in projects and initiatives – online and offline – to address industry, regional and systemic issues. Members and Partners benefit from tailored engagement based on their company strategy. The deeper a company’s engagement, the greater is its ability to shape the Forum agenda.
The World Economic Forum and its annual meeting in Davos are criticised regarding the public cost of security, the formation of a wealthy global elite without attachment to the broader societies, undemocratic decision processes, gender issues and a lack of financial transparency.
It seems this organization is striving to implement the New World Order.
The organization also convenes some six to eight regional meetings each year in locations across Africa, East Asia, Latin America, and India and holds two further annual meetings in China and the United Arab Emirates. Beside meetings, the organization provides a platform for leaders from all stakeholder groups from around the world – business, government and civil society – to collaborate on multiple projects and initiatives. It also produces a series of reports and engages its members in sector-specific initiatives.
Welcome to 2030. I own nothing, have no privacy, and life has never been better.
The Covid and the Great RESET Opportunity
There is an urgent need for global stakeholders to cooperate in simultaneously managing the direct consequences of the COVID-19 crisis.
To improve the state of the world, the World Economic Forum is starting The Great Reset initiative.
- YOU MUST SEE THIS: https://www.facebook.com/dcairforcetv/videos/593244428222243
- Now is the time for a ‘great reset’
Universal Basic Income
“Welcome to 2030. I own nothing, have no privacy, and life has never been better.”
Welcome to the year 2030. Welcome to my city – or should I say, “our city”. I don’t own anything. I don’t own a car. I don’t own a house. I don’t own any appliances or any clothes.
This is World Economic Forum agenda for humanity:
- Why we should all have a basic income
- Pope Francis says it might be ‘time to consider a universal basic wage’ in Easter letter
- Universal basic income costs far less than you might think. Here’s why
- Don’t believe in a universal basic income? This is why it would work, and how we can pay for it