Puzzles of the Moon

The Moon

The Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth, and the 5th largest satellite in the Solar System. It is the largest natural satellite of a planet in the Solar System relative to the size of its primary, having 27% the diameter and 60% the density of Earth, resulting in 1/81 its mass. The Moon is the second densest satellite after Io, a satellite of Jupiter.

The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, always showing the same face with its near side marked by dark volcanic maria that fill between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters. It is the brightest object in the sky after the Sun, although its surface is actually very dark, with a reflectance similar to that of coal.

The Moon’s current orbital distance, about 30 times the diameter of the Earth, causes it to appear almost the same size in the sky as the Sun, allowing it to cover the Sun nearly precisely in total solar eclipses. This matching of apparent visual size is a coincidence.

Its prominence in the sky and its regular cycle of phases have, since ancient times, made the Moon an important cultural influence on language, calendars, art and mythology. The Moon’s gravitational influence produces the ocean tides and the minute lengthening of the day. The Moon’s linear distance from the Earth is currently increasing at a rate of 3.82±0.07cm per year, however this rate is not constant.

Origin of the Moon

The Moon is thought to have formed nearly 4.5 billion years ago, not long after the Earth. Although there have been several hypotheses for its origin in the past, the current most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body.

Several mechanisms have been proposed for the Moon’s formation 4.527 ± 0.010 billion years ago, some 30–50 million years after the origin of the Solar System. These included:

  • the fission of the Moon from the Earth’s crust through centrifugal force (which would require too great an initial spin of the Earth),
  • the gravitational capture of a pre-formed Moon (which would require an unfeasibly extended atmosphere of the Earth to dissipate the energy of the passing Moon),
  • and the co-formation of the Earth and the Moon together in the primordial accretion disk (which does not explain the depletion of metallic iron in the Moon).

 These hypotheses also cannot account for the high angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system.

The Giant Impact Theory

The prevailing hypothesis today is that the Earth–Moon system formed as a result of a giant impact: a Mars-sized body hitting the newly formed proto-Earth, blasting material into orbit around it, which accreted to form the Moon.

Giant impacts are thought to have been common in the early Solar System. Computer simulations modelling a giant impact are consistent with measurements of the angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system and the small size of the lunar core. These simulations also show that most of the Moon came from the impactor, not from the proto-Earth. However more recent tests suggest more of the Moon coalesced from the Earth and not the impactor. Meteorites show that other inner Solar System bodies such as Mars and Vesta have very different oxygen and tungsten isotopic compositions to the Earth, while the Earth and Moon have near-identical isotopic compositions. Post-impact mixing of the vaporized material between the forming Earth and Moon could have equalized their isotopic compositions, although this is debated.
The large amount of energy released in the giant impact event and the subsequent re-accretion of material in Earth orbit would have melted the outer shell of the Earth, forming a magma ocean. The newly formed Moon would also have had its own lunar magma ocean; estimates for its depth range from about 500 km to the entire radius of the Moon.

Despite its accuracy in explaining many lines of evidence, there are still some difficulties that are not fully explained by the giant impact hypothesis, most of them involving the Moon’s composition.

In 2001, a team at the Carnegie Institute of Washington reported the most precise measurement of the isotopic signatures of lunar rocks. To their surprise, the team found that the rocks from the Apollo program carried an isotopic signature that was identical with rocks from Earth, and were different from almost all other bodies in the Solar System. Since most of the material that went into orbit to form the Moon was thought to come from Theia, this observation was unexpected. In 2007, researchers from the California Institute of Technology announced that there was less than a 1% chance that Theia and Earth had identical isotopic signatures.  Published in 2012, an analysis of titanium isotopes in Apollo lunar samples showed that the Moon has the same composition as the Earth, which conflicts with the moon forming far from Earth’s orbit or from Theia. Variations on GIH may explain this data.

Source: Wikipedia

Astronomical Units of Time

A “day” is a unit of time defined by Earth’s axial rotation: it is the period of time measured from local noon (sun at its highest point over horizon) to the following local noon (a solar day.)
This unit of time was used to define smaller units of time by dividing one day into 24 hours and further dividing each hour into 60 minutes and each minute into 60 seconds.

For many centuries astronomers counted the hours and days from noon, because it was the easiest solar event to measure accurately. In the modern 24-hour clock, counting the hours starts at midnight and hours are numbered from 0 to 23. Solar noon is always close to 12:00, again differing according to the equation of time. At the equinoxes sunrise is around 06:00 and sunset around 18:00. Even though today’s atomic clocks have a much more constant rate than the Earth, we use its star clock to determine mean solar time.

The Earth rotates once in 24 hours from the point of view of the sun and once every 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds (23.93447 h) from the point of view of the stars (this is the time of one complete rotation of Earth on its axis).


The Motion of the Moon

The Moon makes a complete orbit around the Earth with respect to the fixed stars about once every 27.3 days (its sidereal period). However, since the Earth is moving in its orbit about the Sun at the same time, it takes slightly longer for the Moon to show the same phase to Earth, which is about 29.5 days (its synodic period).

moon_phases_imgDrawing not to scale

Unlike most satellites of other planets, the Moon orbits nearer the ecliptic plane than to the planet’s equatorial plane. The Moon’s orbit is subtly perturbed by the Sun and Earth in many small, complex and interacting ways. For example, the plane of the Moon’s orbital motion gradually rotates, which affects other aspects of lunar motion.

Earth’s rotation is slowing slightly with time; thus, a day was shorter in the past. This is due to the tidal effects the Moon has on Earth’s rotation. Atomic clocks show that a modern day is longer by about 1.7 milliseconds than a century ago, slowly increasing the rate at which UTC is adjusted by leap seconds. The Moon is spiraling away from Earth at an average rate of 3.8 cm (1.5 in) per year, as detected by the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment. The current recession rate is considered anomalously high. The tidal dissipation rate varied in the Earth geological history.

Over millions of years, the rotation of earth is noticeably slowed by gravitational interactions with the Moon; both rotational energy and angular momentum are being slowly transferred to the Moon (due to  tidal acceleration.)  The present rate of tidal dissipation in the Earth-Moon system is known to be anomalously high, in the sense that the implied age of the lunar orbit is only 1.5×109 years, though other evidence suggests an age closer to 4×109 years. [ http://isotope.colorado.edu/~geol5700/Bills_1999.pdf ]

The Moon’s orbit (its circular path around the Earth) is getting larger, at a rate of about 3.8 centimeters per year. (The Moon’s orbit has a radius of 384,000 km.)

The reason for the increase is that the Moon raises tides on the Earth. Because the side of the Earth that faces the Moon is closer, it feels a stronger pull of gravity than the center of the Earth. Similarly, the part of the Earth facing away from the Moon feels less gravity than the center of the Earth. This effect stretches the Earth a bit, making it a little bit oblong. We call the parts that stick out “tidal bulges.” The actual solid body of the Earth is distorted a few centimeters, but the most noticeable effect is the tides raised on the ocean.

Now, all mass exerts a gravitational force, and the tidal bulges on the Earth exert a gravitational pull on the Moon. Because the Earth rotates faster (once every 24 hours) than the Moon orbits (once every 27.3 days) the bulge tries to “speed up” the Moon, and pull it ahead in its orbit. The Moon is also pulling back on the tidal bulge of the Earth, slowing the Earth’s rotation. Tidal friction, caused by the movement of the tidal bulge around the Earth, takes energy out of the Earth and puts it into the Moon’s orbit, making the Moon’s orbit bigger (but, a bit paradoxically, the Moon actually moves slower!).

The Earth’s rotation is slowing down because of this. One hundred years from now, the day will be 2 milliseconds longer than it is now.

This same process took place billions of years ago – the Moon was slowed down by the tides raised on it by the Earth. That’s why the Moon always keeps the same face pointed toward the Earth. Because the Earth is so much larger than the Moon, this process, called tidal locking, took place very quickly, in a few tens of millions of years.

There are three ways for us to actually measure the effects of tidal friction.
* Measure the change in the length of the lunar month over time.
This can be accomplished by examining the thickness of tidal deposits preserved in rocks, called tidal rhythmites, which can be billions of years old, although measurements only exist for rhythmites that are 900 million years old. As far as I can find (I am not a geologist!) these measurements have only been done since the early 90’s.

* Measure the change in the distance between the Earth and the Moon.
This is accomplished in modern times by bouncing lasers off reflectors left on the surface of the Moon by the Apollo astronauts. Less accurate measurements were obtained in the early 70’s.

* Measure the change in the rotational period of the Earth over time.
Nowadays, the rotation of the Earth is measured using the Very Long Baseline Interferometry, a technique using many radio telescopes a great distance apart. With VLBI, the positions of quasars (tiny, distant, radio-bright objects) can be measured very accurately. Since the rotating Earth carries the antennas along, these measurements can tell us the rotation speed of the Earth very accurately.

However, the change in the Earth’s rotational period was first measured using eclipses, of all things. Astronomers who studied the timing of eclipses over many centuries found that the Moon seemed to be accelerating in its orbit, but what was actually happening was the the Earth’s rotation was slowing down. The effect was first noticed by Edmund Halley in 1695, and first measured by Richard Dunthorne in 1748–though neither one really understood what they were seeing. I think this is the earliest discovery of the effect.

Source: http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=124

Moon Related Questions

The Moon slows the Earth’s rotation, but how fast was it spinning billions of years ago?

When was the Moon formed and how fast was the Earth spinning then?

In a previous answer you said: “The Earth’s rotation is slowing down because of the Moon pulling back on its tidal bulge. One hundred years from now, the day will be 2 milliseconds longer than it is now.”

I’ve seen numbers for the Moon’s formation from 4 to 4.6 billion years ago. At the rate you gave above, the Earth would have been making a rotation every couple hours in the first case, or actually spinning BACKWARDS in the latter. I understand that the rate is definitely not constant, but wouldn’t the Moon pull harder, and thus lengthen the day faster, when it was closer, making the problem even worse?

Everything you’ve said is quite right! The missing piece of the puzzle is in the details how the Moon interacts with the Earth via tides.

The Moon does cause a small distortion in the Earth’s shape, but as everyone knows, the major effect is tides on the ocean. The Moon’s gravity is actually dragging most strongly on the tidal bulge raised on the oceans.

And as it happens, it takes about 12 hours for a big wave to slosh across the Pacific Ocean and back–just in time for its height to be reinforced by the next high tide. So because of the size of the Pacific Basin, the Moon is very effective at slowing the Earth’s rotation right now. However, the size of the ocean changes due to continental drift, so in the past, even though the Moon was closer, tidal friction was a much weaker effect. Unfortunately, it’s very difficult to measure or calculate exactly how the positions of the continents have changed over time to the degree of precision that is necessary to work out the effect on tides, and we have just a few ways to measure the rotation of the Earth at different times in its history, so we do not have a complete history of how the Earth and Moon have interacted, and we are not sure exactly how far from the Earth the Moon was when it first formed, or how fast the Earth was rotating at that time.

How close was the Moon to the Earth when it formed?

Given the fact that the Moon is moving away from the Earth, could you please tell me how close the moon was when it was at it’s closest to Earth, presumably when it formed? I am curious to know how big the moon would have looked at that time. Also, do you know if the rate of departure has ALWAYS been constant?

The Moon is thought to have formed when an object roughly the size of Mars hit the Earth. The impact was so violent that it threw large amounts of the Earth’s mantle into orbit. This material eventually coalesced and formed the Moon.

It is not easy to estimate how far away from the Earth the Moon was when it formed, but simulations suggest is was about 3-5 times the radius of the Earth, or about 19-30 thousand km. (The Moon is currently about 384,000 km away from Earth).

The Moon probably couldn’t have formed closer than 3 Earth radii because tidal forces from the Earth would just pull it apart again, and it is unlikely that the impact could have ejected material further than 5 Earth radii. It’s not a totally easy questions to answer though as it depends a lot on the (unknown) details of the impact and how the hot material behaved in space.

The exact rate of the Moon’s movement away from Earth has varied a lot over time. It depends both on the distance between the Earth and the Moon, and the exact shape of the Earth. The details of continents and oceans moving around on Earth actually change the rate, which make it a very hard thing to estimate. The rate is currently slowing down slightly, and it is estimated that in about 15 billion years the Moon’s orbit will stop increasing in size.

Source: http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/

The Barycenter

The center of mass plays an important role in astronomy and astrophysics, where it is commonly referred to as the barycenter.

BarycenterThe barycenter is the point between two objects where they balance each other; it is the center of mass where two or more celestial bodies orbit each other. When a moon orbits a planet, or a planet orbits a star, both bodies are actually orbiting around a point that lies away from the center of the primary (larger) body.

For example, the Moon does not orbit the exact center of the Earth, but a point on a line between the center of the Earth and the Moon, approximately 1,710 km (1062 miles) below the surface of the Earth, where their respective masses balance. This is the point about which the Earth and Moon orbit as they travel around the Sun. If the masses are more similar, e.g., Pluto and Charon, the barycenter will fall outside both bodies.

Perhaps the motion of the barycenter of the Solar System as the whole is responsible for subtle (and periodic) changes in the solar activity which in turn could cause major changes on our planet (e.g. ice ages, level of radiation, etc)?


Motion of the Solar System barycenter relative to the Sun. Source: Wikipedia, Carl Smith


The Conservation of Angular Momentum

In orbits, the angular momentum is distributed between the spin of the planet itself and the angular momentum of its orbit:

\mathbf{L}_{\mathrm{total}} = \mathbf{L}_{\mathrm{spin}} + \mathbf{L}_{\mathrm{orbit}}</p><br />
<p></p><br />

If a planet is found to rotate slower than expected, then astronomers suspect that the planet is accompanied by a satellite, because the total angular momentum is shared between the planet and its satellite in order to be conserved.

The conservation of angular momentum is used extensively in analyzing what is called central force motion. If the net force on some body is directed always toward some fixed point, the center, then there is no torque on the body with respect to the center, and so the angular momentum of the body about the center is constant. Constant angular momentum is extremely useful when dealing with the orbits of planets and satellites, and also when analyzing the Bohr model of the atom.

The conservation of angular momentum explains the angular acceleration of an ice skater as she brings her arms and legs close to the vertical axis of rotation. By bringing part of mass of her body closer to the axis she decreases her body’s moment of inertia. Because angular momentum is constant in the absence of external torques, the angular velocity (rotational speed) of the skater has to increase.


The same phenomenon results in extremely fast spin of compact stars (like white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes) when they are formed out of much larger and slower rotating stars (indeed, decreasing the size of object 104 times results in increase of its angular velocity by the factor 108).

The conservation of angular momentum in Earth–Moon system results in the transfer of angular momentum from Earth to Moon (due to tidal torque the Moon exerts on the Earth). This in turn results in the slowing down of the rotation rate of Earth (at about 42 ns/day), and in gradual increase of the radius of Moon’s orbit (at ~4.5 cm/year rate). [ Source: Wikipedia ]

– – –

The described above theories suggest that over long period of time the earth has tendency to slow down its axial rotation while the moon moves further away from our planet (taking longer to complete its full orbit around the earth). 

As the result, in the very distant future, the earth will take less than 365.25 days to complete a full orbit around the sun. Once the orbital period of the earth goes down to 360 days, and further and slower moon takes 30 days to circle the earth, we would be able (perhaps again?) to use a “perfect calendar” with  12 lunar month (30 days each) and 360 days year.

Extrapolation into a distant past of the current tendency of earth to slow down its rotation, might suggest that millions of years ago our planet was rotating faster than today (the orbital period was more than 365.25 days). However it is also possible that long time ago the orbital speed of the earth WAS exactly 360 days, until a major asteroid impact accelerated this rotation and increased number of days in a year to 365.25 (and possibly tilted the axis of rotation).

This will be explored in the next post.

PS1 Asteroid Impact

Craters are the evidence of intensive “bombardment” of the planets and moons of the solar system

Virtually all planetary surfaces are cratered from the impact of interplanetary bodies. It is now clear from planetary bodies that have retained portions of their earliest surfaces that impact was a dominant geologic process throughout the early solar system. For example, the oldest lunar surfaces are literally saturated with impact craters, produced by an intense bombardment which lasted from 4.6 to approximately 3.9 billion years ago, at least a 100 times higher than the present impact flux.

Can asteroid impact change axial rotation of a planet?

Yes, collision with a large asteroid could have measurable impact on axial rotation and tilt.

– – –

In the context of the above theories, it is worth consideration that major asteroid impact could have disrupted “perfect” cycles of the Earth and Moon system (360 days year with 12 lunar month to a year)  and caused Earth rotation to be slightly faster … so after the asteroid impact the Earth would take 365.25 days to complete its full 360 deg orbit around the sun.

Follow up this article:

PS2 Mars and Venus


Mars has approximately half the diameter of Earth. It is less dense than Earth, having about 15% of Earth’s volume and 11% of the mass.

Did you know that Mars has an axial tilt and a rotation period similar to those of Earth?

The average length of a Martian sidereal day is 24h 37m 22.663s (based on SI units), and the length of its solar day (often called a sol) is 88,775.24409 seconds or 24h 39m 35.24409s.
The corresponding values for Earth are 23h 56m 04.2s and 24h 00m 00.002s, respectively. This yields a conversion factor of 1.027491 days/sol.
Thus Mars’s solar day is only about 2.7% longer than Earth’s.

 Its year, however, is almost twice as long as Earth’s:

Mars orbital period:
686.971 days = 1.8808 Julian years = 668.5991 sols
Synodic period  = 779.96 days = 2.135 Julian years


The diameter of Venus is 12,092 km (only 650 km less than the Earth’s) and its mass is 81.5% of the Earth’s.

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Venus Orbital period  = 224.698 day = 0.615 190 yr = 1.92 Venus solar day
Synodic period    583.92 days

 All the planets of the Solar System orbit the Sun in a counter-clockwise direction as viewed from above the Sun’s north pole. Most planets also rotate on their axis in a counter-clockwise direction, but Venus rotates clockwise (called “retrograde” rotation) once every 243 Earth days—the slowest rotation period of any planet. To an observer on the surface of Venus, the Sun would rise in the west and set in the east.
A Venusian sidereal day thus lasts longer than a Venusian year (243 versus 224.7 Earth days). Because of the retrograde rotation, the length of a solar day on Venus is significantly shorter than the sidereal day, at 116.75 Earth days (making the Venusian solar day shorter than Mercury’s 176 Earth days); one Venusian year is about 1.92 Venusian (solar) days long.



  1. says

    Revolutions of Earth and the Time Abraham Lived?

    The debate, between the creationists and evolutionists, concerning the human presence on the earth is going on even today. May be the following overlooked clues may give new materials for their discussion.

    1.Duriong the initial stages of formation of earth, even when it was in the process of solidification, a Mars sized planet Theta collided with Earth and moon was formed out of this collision about 4.5 billion years ago. Then the time taken by the earth for one revolution about its axis is around 10 hours of today. But now the time taken by the Earth for one revolution about its axis is 24 hours. (Science &Vie Junior Décembre 2010). This retardation may perhaps be attributed to the cosmic events like tidal forces and the forces that influence due to the proximity of Sun as well as the Moon. The same article reports that the study of fossils of corals indicate that about 500 million years ago the earth took 22 hours for one revolution about its axis. i.e. the day had only 22 hours. So it is evident that the length of one day and night has increased from 10 hours to 24 hours during the course of 4.0 billion years.. May be considering this fact of rotation of the earth about its axis, the time taken for its revolution around the Sun also could be faster about 4.5 billions ago and was reduced such that it takes 12 months for one revolution now. Assuming that the variation is gradual it is computed that about 500 million years ago the earth took 10 months for one revolution around the Sun.

    Miss Cossley Batt, an American , who visited a Chaldean tribe living in caves at an altitude of 28,000 feet on the Himalayas discovered that ‘the years of the tribe are nine months long according to our years of twelve months; several of these men and women are more than hundred years old.’ (Quarterly Journal of Mythic Society. Vol.XXI. No.3. p.308). It is presumed that the revolutions of the earth as well as its circum ambulation around the Sun are more in the past compared to the present. The nine month year could have prevailed around 750 million years ago as per the computation in para 2.

    Abraham who is claimed to be father of Monotheistic Semitic religions- Judaism, Christianity and Islam. He was a Chaldean immigrant from Ur (Sepharial: Hebrew Astrology. Pp.25-26). So Abraham lived in a period when the duration of a year was nine months and duration of day around 21 hours. Further Abraham is a descendant of Adam.The precise generations between Adam and Abraham could not be elicited from the Old Testament. He lived until a ripe age of about 930 years whereas Adam and his successors lived around 160 years. But Terah the father of Abraham lived up to 205 years. The average maxiomum age a man could live is estimated as 120 years. Perhaps the length of year could be shorter during Adam’s period and gradually became greater later due to some cosmological events such gravitation, influence of tides and etc.. So it is possible to place the time of Adam by computing the time gap between Adam and Abraham which can be achieved only by the Biblical scholars.

    This is a preliminary investigation based on the data that came by random reading and at no time it is the object of research to find the date of either Abraham or Adam.

    B.E., MSc(Engg)(IISc) F.I.E., FIV
    Superintending Engineer ,Tamilnadu PWD (Retd),
    (Formerly Research Scholar at the
    Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.)
    P.No.64-A, Kalamegam Street Extn.,
    SBI Colony II Street, Kamarajapuram,
    Chennai – 600 073
    Tele:+91-44-2227 5403
    Email:[email protected]
    Dated: March 25 2013

  2. Doug Yurchey says

    I actually agree with Brenda Brown and I am very impressed with her last comment. She made no religious reference – I retract my last derogatory comment about you – because now I know you can speak some science.
    WE are the Atlanteans (read Cayce). What I’ve learned is: when technical ‘Eden’ or Atlantis, this great pyramid-building HUMAN Empire or space colony, LANDED here in an advanced technical state…THEN FELL and the Tesla-powered-world-electrical system shattered and was no more…this is the fall of the human race…HUMAN…or I should say…superhuman. But, Paradise fell – BEFORE this, we were moonless. I AM saying Atlantean HUMANS – NOT ALIENS – Brought in the Moon and placed it in its special position and weird orbit. WE…among other groups out there DID THAT…to monitor how screwed up things became here. I mean…a whole continent in the ATLANTIC had just sunk! NOW…we needed monitoring in the aftermath of the Great Collapse…and the Moon is a perfect, artificial platform with fixed transmitters to WATCH US.

    • Brenda Brown says

      Hi Doug. Thank you for retracting your last statement. Just to let you know, I’m in World Mysteries because I’ve always been interested in the ‘out there’ sciences, and phenomena that main-stream whatevers, don’t like to get into.
      Yes, I totally agree that Atlanteans built, or were responsible for the knowledge that built, most if not all the ancient megalithic sites. I’ve always felt akin to Atlantis, and as I told you, while reading Edgar Cayce’s – ‘Atlantis Revisited’, had a supernatural experience that continued, day after day, until I finished reading the book. Weird.
      I hadn’t known a lot about Cayce – just that he was called, ‘The Sleeping Prophet’, and got his info by putting himself in a trance. When I had the opportunity to read a couple of his books – one was a book about him, I learned a fair amount more, but that was after I had a this experience.
      I sort of get the idea that the Atlanteans knew a lot about where this earth was going, and made statements in their buildings – most of which scientists don’t get because – and this is my opinion, they’re thinking too scientifically/literally, instead of employing the true knowledge of the Zodiac and various spiritual principles. But these are truths that are about to be revealed in this next decade, and I for one, am very very glad to be a part of it.

    • Starheater says

      Hello everyone

      It’s fun to see all those science around Atlantis, they could have been more powerfull that anything that we could find on Earth actually, that would not make any difference, we are what we are at this moment, and this is not a Big deal, even if we could have the power that they have in that time, we could not be more that they were, and right now, they are in deep ocean, that’s a fact that I wanted to point just to m,ake you think that power is not enough, we have to have good will too. Why have all the power of the Univers if we cannot be real close to each other, with a good sense of frienship and fraternety.

      There are 2 knid of force on Earth: 1° Brutal force and all that goes with it, like bombs, weappon, guns, canon etc….
      The Second force is not brutal, it is non destructive in nature, like paralizer, neutralizer, etc…

      In India and in a couple of Cities, they have utilized brital force to have Suprematy on Earth, but the lack of science in defense cause this race to die in bulk, after been suck by the ocean, they were not as powerfull that they would have tought. If they could have made the accent more on the way to know what they were sitting on, they would probably have prevent the most great disaster of all time.

      By searching on what the Earth is compose and is structured, they would have a good idea what could happen in case of disaster, or they could change with their knowledge the thing that happen that cause this continent to shink. This happen not only in the Atlantic, but in the Pacific to.

      Actually, what would happen if the Yellowstone volcain covert blow out in the sky, this is more then St-Helen to see, more, pretty much more. How could we protect ourself from this unprecedent disaster? we go in cavern or what? No chance, this happen and all the Earth is affected, from East to Wouest, North to South, the only place is deep in the Earth or outside the Earth on another planet like Mars, yes, we could live on Mars, there is no doutb in my mind. We have on this planet fresh pure water, and I dont know why NASA keep this secret.

      At this moment I know that there are humain on this planet and that they can bread the thin atmosphere, in general, where there is water, there is oxgygen and hydrogen, it’s only a matter of logic and science. The army have UFO that they have construct without race coming from the space. It’s really not difficult to make a dynaspheric engin (UFO), beside, they are not only one way to make them (UFO), but several way to cancel gravity, some are really complicated, and some are really simple. I would not be surprise the ear one day that somebody have make a space ship. But if you know how to make one, dont expose it to the government, they will sease all your paper and vehicule (space ship).

      There are 2 kind of space ship: with mobile pieces
      The other: non mobil pieces

      You can have combinaision to, but those I dont really know how they work, as for me, I prefer the one with no mobil pieces, no mobil pieces, no friction, no chance to have failure. It’s not certain pieces who turn an make the magnetic field, is the magnetic field who is turning around a pole. The more you have the pole, the more you have ways of directions to go, 4 pole=4directions, 8 pole=8 directions ans so on…

      Ounce the gravity field is on, you can go at 3 time the speed of sound (speed of sound= 750 miles per hours) and make a 90° turn without problem for the pilot. The problem is that you will have to spend a lot of money, but the economy is great, need no fuel, no replacement parts, only 2-24 volts battery, 1 in case of a short. The more the motor are big, the more the vihicule is big, the more you go faster, and you can forget about affecting the time, you see The Earth have this motor, and that doesn’t affect the time at all.

      You wanted science M. Yurchey, you have science now that you can verified yourself, now teach me your science, if it’s right I will tell you, I’m not jealous kind, I love to be teach by someone who’s knowledge is greater then mine, that’s how I learn, from me and others.
      God Bless M. Yurchey

      • Starheater says

        Almost forgot M. Yurchey

        I want you to make a real experience that would convience you on what I am talking about gravity.
        For this experience you will need 5 persons, and 1 of this person would have to be really big, this is to had to this experience the a surprising effect that would be difficult to denied.

        The big person (350 lbs appr.) will be place on a chair, all the 4 remaining participants will reunited their hands so that only the fisrt finger is deploy, all the others will be non participating, only the 2 first finger is allow to enter in contact with the one that sit on the chair. Now, for the exercice to now if a person that heavy could be lifted up with only the tips of 2 fingers, you will make the exercice by puttin 2 participant at the flexion of the 2 feets, and the 2 others at under the the arms were it begin, were you put Mennen speed stick. Ounce you are in position with all the others, at the signal you will try to lift the big person, you’ll see that this is not faisable.
        Now, you wil make wioth all the hands of all the 4 person a cercle by put one hand oever another alternativly so that all the hands will be right over the head of the one sitting on the chair. Now, somme important thing to know, you will not enter in contact with is hair, neither another part of the person sitting on the chair, you will nor enter neither in contact with the participant, that could cancel the energy fields, you have to be synchronize with the group when you will go to the place that are affected to you, 4 place in total. You must not be on grounded place or where you can find isolent like goudron or else. You make a countdown after you go to your place and lift the person sitting on the chair, I tell you, you wont believe it, you will lift it like his was a feather, or a bag of air. Try it, and give news.

        I invite everybody to make that experiment, you will be amaze by the result. Some university student have told me that was not a case of canceling gravity, but just a way that is not known to multiply our musclelar force by a certain factor unknown. Well, make this experience and you’ll see that this is part of cancelling the gravity.

        God Bless everyone

    • Starheater says

      Hello M. Yurchey
      When you talk about superhumain, I’m in accord with you, but, and there a but, this was humain and not a faction that came from space to teach us how to make us genious. Those Atlanteans that you talk about is cited in the Bible, but there are not what you think they are. At the base they were spirit who could transform their frequencies rythm to match ours, the same things happen today, they are here to make some diversion to be the one’s that all humain will deal with. This I can prove it too the whole world if neccessary. They are like The angels of God, they can, talk, run, heat bread ans all kind of foods, or they can make projection of theirself to look like a UFO, the only difference is that they kind of pretend that they dont work with God, this is not true, they work for HIM as good angel work for GOD, dont be surprised, I’m sure that you know what I mean.
      If you want proof, your just have to study the case of Whitney Strieber an see the film Communion, you will know how they act, they have the power to imitate anyone on this planet. If you dont beleive me, it dont matter, but just keep it in mind, you’ll have proofs of what I’m saying if you search a little bit, crop cercles are provoque by them, this is the learning part to let us know that they are really advence in their fields. But science is not what we sould learn, there are manny things that we can learn beside science, and one of this thing is to be good with everyone.

      If we could have the knowledge of the Atlanteans, we could make the same errors that they have make, so, what is science if we dont have enough wisdom to protect ourself and the others, science is a good thing, but in the wrong hands you could be surprised by all the damage we could have to deal with. Let our famous or infamous ancesters to sleep, and let us go were we are suppose to go. And we are suppose to dominate our bad habit, if I can speak like this, and with what we could do so? With science, yes we could, but not ordinary science, the science of GOD. God Bless M. Yurchey

  3. Brenda Brown says

    How about ancient Atlanteans putting the the moon in place themselves? They were space travelling, setting up civilizations in the Solar System, and who knows what else. Certainly their knowledge – what remains of it, reflected in their ancient buildings, far surpasses what we know, and uses sciences we’re just hanging around the fringes of. Dark Mission suggests at least one of the moons of Jupiter is not natural, and I think it’s a lot more likely that someone from this Solar System made these satellites, than some alien coming from far galaxies to put a moon in near our earth.

  4. Doug Yurchey says

    The Moon is not a natural satellite – doesn’t fit with the rest of the Solar System with rocks far older than any rocks known. Ancient structures are on the Moon – your astronauts who went there saw them.
    I wrote an old article called ‘Who Stops to Question the Man in the Moon?’ We don’t question the fact that such a rare oddity circles the only KNOWN planet with our kind of Life.
    My personal belief is that the Earth was moonless until 12-13,000 years ago when Atlantis (Eden) FELL…a super pyramid-building-society, our ancestors and our amazing high-tech society collapsed – a whole continent sank in the Atlantic – and we’ve been screwed up ever since. Then…some alien Watchers BROUGHT IN THE MOON. I am not the only writer who believes this. Then, the Moon was set UNNATURALLY in place to always face the Earth. High tower transmitters that NASA blurred out…need to be fixed. Naturally, like other satellites, we should see the other side of the Moon. SOMETHING, some mechanism, is compensating to keep the Moon’s in-sync relationship in-sync. Something’s going on and the authorities LIE. The Moon has water at the poles and a very thin atmosphere. ‘Annabelle’ as it’s called is an ancient probably mining-machine that Apollo 12 flyby caught on film. The long cigar-shaped SHIP or machine is so old it has craters on its outer hull.
    Why wouldn’t the one planet KNOWN to have Life be monitored? As I wrote in my STORY ‘Aliens Will Save Us’…the Moon was not destroyed because ‘They’ need it…and I theorize could actually be more important than the Earth. To them, that is.

    • j.a. says

      Its funny you said that there was a remark on the mainstream media about who owns the moon why would they even ask that very suspicious when we search for the truth and the media lies as for the planets in our solar system go to alternative knowledge every one it is safer there.

    • Starheater says

      M. Yurchey
      Supposing thet all this is true, what we can do about it, we discuss and discuss, and what? Even if NASA drop all that she knows about this, what we do now? Do you understand the point that lies at the bottom of the picture. We could protest and shouting real loud, that would’nt make any difference, this is news, only news, nothing else.
      If the truth on the Moon could be release, and Mars to, what could change about what we are, I suppose nothing. This is a waste of time, why? Because there is nothing we can do about except to change our view on that matter, even changing our view would be static in our mind, there a tree in the forrest that have been ravage by a tornado, what could bring us to know that news, nothing!!! Please tell what could bring the fact that we were superman in the beginning of the story of humain kind? Take all the knowledge that they have in the beginning, that’s must be enormous, but were we could go with it, oh, it,s certain, we could have alot of machine that we the people could not have, only the fews. Too have science and applied that science correctly is 2 time 2 mesure, and none for us, because we are not scientist, only ordinary people, no?

      We could have electricity that dont cost us a penny, we dont have that kind of stuff, this is prohibited. I have seen once, it make 30 years from now, a plate in plexiglass with 1 interruptor, 1 bobin that have cup wire wrap around, and only one conductor, and when the swich was on, the light would shine, no trick, nothing. Imagine just a instant what would could we pay to the electric compagny, 0 penny, you know that they dont want that to happen, they want a service that you can tap in and make the counter go crazy, this way they make money, so whatever the dicovery on the Moon or Mars, you wont have the access of their technologie and inventions, no M. Yurchey.
      If you could produce all your electicity, you will have to be more then prudent, ’cause if they know you could finnish like all the one that have make like Tesla, he was poor when he died, and that is nothing for leader of the world. God Bless.

  5. wishbone says

    there is also the idea once put forward by a NASA engineer, that the moon looks like it was PUT in its perfect parking orbit. i happen to believe this might be closer to the truth. a lot of joined-up thinking must be applied, a lot of different mysteries about the earth, the moon, human evolution and anomalies in our DNA, history, our stories of gods and angels (enki, for instance), or a pillar of iron giving by KRISHNA (the little blue guy) to a village in india taken from his temple “on the moon”.


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