In this modern world the art of Management has become a part and parcel of everyday life, be it at home, in the office or factory and in Government. In all organizations, where a group of human beings assemble for a common purpose irrespective of caste, creed, and religion, management principles come into play through the management of resources, finance and planning, priorities, policies and practice.
Management is a systematic way of carrying out activities in any field of human effort. Management need to focus more on leadership skills, e.g., establishing vision and goals, communicating the vision and goals, and guiding others to accomplish them. It also assert that leadership must be more facilitative, participative and empowering in how visions and goals are established and carried out. Some people assert that this really isn’t a change in the management functions, rather it’s re-emphasizing certain aspects of management.
Socio-technical systems approach
Technical systems such as production and office operation have great effect on social system such as personal This concept places importance on labour and lower-level office work and ignores other managerial knowledge. In this concept managing is treated as a mathematical processes. It is viewed as a purely logical process and is expressed in mathematical symbols and relationships. Managing is not a pure science and hence cannot be completely modeled.
Without doubt social management is an indispensable part of Country’s future development. However, talking about this issue, we must have a clear answer to some important questions: What is social management, and what are its relations with social construction and social services? What are the most urgent problems in social management we face today? How can we make social management more effective?
Social management refers to all government and private management and services in public fields other than economics, politics and culture and all fields where common men’s life is affected. As an important part of the social construct, social management seeks to promote the orderly development of society by coordinating various interests and resolving social conflicts.
Social management is essentially a people-centered concept that can be best realized through providing proper social services. The government plays an important role and shoulders a strong responsibility in social management and services.
In implementing these arrangements, we should insist on the basic principle of “people first”, which is the initial logic behind scientific development, and realize better social management through the provision of better social services. The social services we provide will directly determine the result of social management. It is through the services they receive that the people decide whether the government has done enough.
The people are the core issue and the ultimate end of all development, whether economic, political or cultural, and social management is no exception to this. The most direct implementation and expression of that principle is the government using all efforts to defend the rights, welfare and interests of the people.
To that end, we can also strengthen the role of social organizations, and encourage public and private participation in the process of social management. That would not only bring fresh life to social services, but also expand the space for government to buy services for society, thus forming a better general pattern for society.
Just as human body is formed of different interdependent systems so is also an organization. A change in any one of these systems may affect all or some other systems to varying degrees. This ‘ripple effect’ influences the effectiveness of the organization. To understand the interactions and the consequences between the various systems of the organization the managers should posses the ability to get a perspective view. Treating an organization as formed of different Systems is known as systems approach. Systems theory was first applied in the fields of science and engineering. It also has found wide acceptance in the practice of management. A system can be defined as essentially a set or assemblage of things interconnected or interdependent, so as to form a complex unity. Cars, computers, television and radio sets are some examples of systems. There are two major types of systems: closed and open. A closed system has definite boundaries; it operates relatively independently and is not affected by the environment outside the system. Stand by generator is an example of a closed system. With its different systems working together in perfect harmony the generator continues to supply power as long as it has sufficient fuel supply without much regard to the external environment. An open system as the name implies, is characterized by its interaction with the external environment.
Clearly, an open-system model that includes interactions between the enterprise and its external environment must describe any business or other organization.
Today materialism is a great influence in our lives. Wealthy people are getting obsessed with accumulating more wealth in spite of knowing deep in their hearts that the wealth does not create happiness. The poor, are trying hard to become wealthy in spite of knowing that the wealth alone cannot create happiness. The race for materialism is depressing. Human consciousness and values has taken a back seat in this race. Our basic needs have expanded to owning posh villas, enjoying foreign food, costly designer clothing, hi-tech entertainment, pubs, clubs, etc.. Personal ambitions are around individual achievements, power and position. Social consciousness and
values does not get into the list of personal ambitions.
Its task is to make people capable of joint performance, to make their weaknesses irrelevant, says the Management Guru Peter Ducker. It creates harmony in working together – equilibrium in thoughts and actions, goals and achievements, plans and performance, products and markets. It resolves situations of scarcity, be they in the physical, technical or human fields, through maximum utilization with the minimum available processes to achieve the goal. Lack of management causes disorder, confusion, wastage, delay, destruction and even depression. Managing men, money and materials in the best possible way, according to circumstances and environment, is the most important and essential factor for a successful management.
It is said that people who are more spiritually involved achieve better results in organizational performance. They are innovative and motivated. The time has come to encourage spirituality in workplace.
It is time to reclaim India’s own spiritual heritage by returning to our arsha bharatha spiritual ancestry after reshaping it to suit the present situation.
In modern management professional and personal lives are considered two separate entities. Nowadays the “tough” and “aggressive” managers who order things to get done are looked upon as “good” managers! The competition and aspiration for a higher lifestyle eliminates any possibility of genuine compassion, ethics, social welfare and integrity in management.
The Bhagavad-Gita was delivered by Sri Krishna to boost Arjuna’s declining morale, motivation, confidence and to increase his (Arjuna) effectiveness due to his (Arjuna) intra-personal conflict, which was to fight or not to fight the war at Kurukshestra Sri Krishna gave not only spiritual enlightenment but also the art of self management, conflict management, stress, anger management, transformational leadership, motivation, goal setting and many others aspects of management which can be used as a guide to increase HRM effectiveness. Unlike the western approach to HRM, which focuses in exploring the external world of matter and energy, the Bhagavad-Gita recommends a HRM approach, which focuses on exploring the inner world of the self.
With our current system of education, the possibilities of self discovery or self realization get severely limited. In our commercial world today, these qualities do not have any market value. You cannot make a living by being self-realized. Our education system does not give an insight into the nature and other worldly knowledge.
HRM can understand from Gita the organizational behaviour in terms of the reciprocal causation among the employee (unique personality characteristics), the environment (perceived consequences from the organizational environment, such as result for performance), and the behavior itself (previous successful performances). Because of these combined reciprocal influences, employees are at the same time both products and producers of their personality, their behaviours, and their respective environments. They can suggest that the implications that self-efficacy may have for employee performance in organizations can no longer be ignored by practicing managers. They contend that while traditional motivational and behavioural management approaches are still relevant, expanding the behavioural management approach with SCT and self-efficacy will lead to the more
comprehensive understanding and effective management of today’s human resources.
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