Ancient Legacy – 360 and Pi


The Columbia Encyclopedia, in its article titled “Civilization,” says that the earliest civilizations developed in the following parts of the world: Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, India, the central Andes, and Mesoamerica. A traditional theory of the spread of civilization is that it began in the Fertile Crescent and spread out from there by influence. However, scholars now believe that civilizations started independently at several locations in both hemispheres. [ Please read subject related article: Earth’s Earliest Civilizations: “Full Blown – Full Grown” ]


mesopotamiaMesopotamia, an ancient Greek term meaning “the land between rivers,” is considered to be the cradle of civilization because this is where we find the origins of cities, agriculture, written language, law, astronomy and mathematics.


Most people today do not realize that foundations of modern distance and time measuring systems were created by earliest known civilizations (going back thousands of years to the area of Mesopotamia).
The key numbers for these counting systems were 12, 24, 60 and 360. 

It is presumed that the Babylonians invented the division of the circle into 360 degrees. It’s not clear why they used 360. [ note: this article may provide the answers ] One theory is that back in early Sumerian times they divided the day into 12 “time-miles” – the time required to travel a “Babylonian mile” [ 360 m = 60 rods, each rod was 12 cubits, and each cubit was c.0.5 m ] . Since a day is one revolution of the sky, that corresponds to dividing a complete revolution into 12 parts. For convenience, the “Babylonian mile” was subdivided into 30 parts, and that gives 360 subdivisions of the circle. See e.g. Eves, “An Introduction to the History of Mathematics”, sec. 2-4.


  • We still divide 1 day into 24 hours, each hour into 60 minutes and each minute into 60 seconds.hours_minutes
  • We also do not question that circle should be divided into 360 degrees, each degree into 60 minutes, each minute into 60 seconds.
  • Big part of the modern world still uses Imperial units of length: feet which are divided into 12 inches


Note:  1 mile is divided into 5280 feet (12 x 440) feet, also 1 mile = 1760 yards (4x 440)
BTW, Great Pyramid of Giza has base = 440 Royal Egyptian Cubits which results in perimeter = 1760 Royal Egyptian Cubits).
1 mile = 63,360 inches. Now notice something strange: 63*360=22680 inches = 1100 Royal Egyptian Cubits

Considering that humans have 10 fingers and commonly use base 10 system* to express and count numbers, it is puzzling why we don’t apply decimal system to division of circle and time-measuring.


*The decimal numeral system (also called base ten) has 10 (ten) as its base and it is used in mathematics for writing numbers and performing arithmetic.
It is  most widely used number system by modern civilizations.

The simplest, “natural” division of circle could by multiples of 2 or 10. 
For example, circle could have 4 quadrants, each divided into 100 units (total 400 “degrees” instead of 360 ).

400degreesWe could also use multiples of 2, for example we could divide circle into 64 (2x2x2x2x2x2), 256 or 512 parts and each part would be further divided into 10 or 100 sub-units.

There must be a good reason why we don’t use decimal system when it comes to measuring circles and time.
It seems that ancient people discovered (or were given) advanced principles of astronomy and mathematics which resulted in measuring systems we inherited from them and still use today.

1. Secrets of Pi and 360

The Pi is defined as the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. Pi is equal to 3.14159265358979323846… (the digits go on forever without repeating pattern.)
You cannot expect to reveal the actual last digit of pi – Because there isn’t one.  A rough approximation is 22/7 (=3.1428571…), but that is not very accurate


For most numerical calculations involving “pi”, a handful of digits provide sufficient precision. According to Jörg Arndt and Christoph Haenel, thirty-nine digits are sufficient to perform most cosmological calculations, because that is the accuracy necessary to calculate the volume of the known universe with a precision of one atom. Despite this, people have worked strenuously to compute ? to thousands and millions of digits.

The Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans and later Muslim scholars and the Western World adopted all these value and universal constants and we are just not sure how to use these to understand Divine Light and therefore achieve our goal. It seems we still are looking for Aliens and Atlantis – digging here and there and yet it is right in front of us, if we could only see!

Pi = 3.141 592 653 5

3 x 1 = 3
3 x 1 x 4 = 12 (note: 12 divisions of zodiac, 1 foot=12 inches)
3 x 1 x 4 x 1 x 5 = 60 (note: 1 hour = 60 min, 1 min = 60 sec)
3 x 1 x 4 x 1 x 5 x 9 = 540  :::  540/360=1.5 (note: circle is divided into 360 degrees)
3 x 1 x 4 x 1 x 5 x 9 x 2 = 1080  :::  1080/360=3 (note: 1080 feet = 360 yards)
3 x 1 x 4 x 1 x 5 x 9 x 2 x 6 = 6480  :::  6480/360=18
3 x 1 x 4 x 1 x 5 x 9 x 2 x 6 x 5 = 32400  :::  32400/360=90
3 x 1 x 4 x 1 x 5 x 9 x 2 x 6 x 5 x 3 = 97200  :::  97200/360=270

Notice how 360 is hidden within the Pi.

Perhaps dividing circle into 360 degrees resulted from ancient knowledge of the exact value of the Pi?

Notice that time is connected to the circle since it is defined by rotation cycle of our planet (one spin cycle when sun returns to zenith):
1 day = 2x 12 hours = 1440 minutes = 86400 seconds

Here is another unbelievable “coincidence”:

“Pi” approximated to the 9th decimal place is exactly
Pi = 3.141 592 654

3 x 1 x 4 x 1 x 5 x 9 x 2 x 6 x 5 x 4 = 129,600 

129,600 x 2 = 25,920  x 10 
which is 10x Earth’s precession cycles ( 10 x period of precession of the equinoxes)

The Earth is spinning on its axis in a counter-clockwise direction, and rotating around the sun also in a counter-clockwise direction, while the earth’s spinning axis wobbles like a gyroscope in a clockwise direction. As the result,  as the twelve constellations appear to move clockwise along/around the horizon during the course of its annual rotation around the sun during a year, the constellations, from spring or fall equinox to equinox,appear to move counterclockwise at the rate of 72 years/per degree, or one full wobble in 25,920 years (also known as Great Year).of the earth’s axis.
The galactic year is the duration of time required for the Solar System to orbit once around the center of our galaxy (the Milky Way). Estimated length of the galactic year is close to 1000 precession cycles of the Earth.

2. Connection of  Distance and Time

Our planet spins on its axis and also moves on its orbit around the Sun.
No matter what units of time we apply, the property of Earth movement is such that it will rotate on its axis exactly 366.25 times while completes its full orbit around the Sun, however sun will pass above selected point on earth’s surface (e.g. Great Pyramid)  exactly 365.25 times per orbit.

Note: The Earth makes 360 degrees rotation around its axis in relation to the distant stars in one “sidereal day”. However, in relation to the sun, due to the earth’s orbital movement, it rotates on its axis a bit more than 360° per (solar) day.  This way in 1 year the Earth makes 1 extra rotation in relation to stars.However, we define our 24 hour “day” relative to the Sun, not relative to the Earth’s actual rotation. If we didn’t do this, then “Noon” would occur a little later each day until “Noon” was happening at night!
At present, Earth orbits the Sun once every 366.25 times it rotates about its own axis, which is equal to 365.25 solar days, or one sidereal year.

BTW, we can only wonder if our planet was originally set on a perfect orbit with 360 days per year and slowed down due to some major catastrophe (asteroid impact which slowed it down – and/or perhaps ejected the material to form the moon)…? 

Also, selecting 365  for division of a circle into smaller units, would not be practical due to the fact that 365  is not good  for further divisions: 365=5×73.
On the other hand, 360 can be divided in multiple ways ( 360=3x 1x2x3x4x5 ) and also 360= 10x (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8).

Units of Length

 There are many units of measure we use today. Most of us don’t even understand what was their origin. Here are few mind-blowing facts.

Circle with Radius R has circumference 2 x Pi x R.
This formula is independent of units we use to measure R.

The formula can also be used to define units of length.
Let’s define a practical unit of length (convenient for measuring travelling distance on our planet) and make another smaller unit 12 times smaller.
Also, we want to make our unit to reflect our knowledge about 3 important numbers: 1000* (decimal system), 360 (degrees in a circle) and 365.24 (length of 1 year).

*Note: If we divide Earth equator into number of days in a year (365.24) each unit (very close to 1 deg) could be further divided into regular minutes and seconds (60×60) and 100th…

Circumference of Earth measured in our units of length:
2*Pi*R [units] = 360*365.24*1000 (we want this number to be the circumference measured in our units)
Therefore R [units] = 131,486,400/(2*Pi) = 20,926,710.51 [units]
The official measurement of Earth’s equatorial radius is 6,378.1 km  = 20,925,525 feet.
20,926,710.51/20,925,525 =1.00005
This means that the unit we defined is equal 1 foot , and the 12 times smaller unit is 1 inch.

BTW, Royal Sacred Cubit used during construction of ancient pyramids in Egypt ranges from 20.618 to 20.626 inches
represents sacred number: (360x60x60 = 1296000) circumference of the circle expressed in number of arc-seconds/2*Pi*10000

When we use perfect Pi = 3.14159 the REC = 20.6265
When Pi is approximated by 22/7 = 3.14286 the REC = 20.618

3. Tribute to Ancient Knowledge: Pyramids of Egypt

The Great Pyramid has proportions representing Pi:

Double Base/Height = 2*440/280 = 22/7 = 3.14286
(which is reasonable approximation of Pi.)

No matter what units of measure we use, the sides of the Giza Pyramids Rectangle (layout for all 3 pyramids) generate the base of the 1st pyramid:

If we use Royal Egyptian Cubits: 1732/1417  =  440/360

This rectangle shows also relationship of 
the Royal Egyptian Cubit 20.62 inch
to the Sacred Cubit 25.2 inch
1732/1417 = 25.2/20.62


Phi and phi

phi = 1.61803 39887 49894 84820 45868 34365 63811 77203 09179 80576
phi, 1.618 …  is the Golden Ratio in life and the universe.

 phi + 1 = phi 2

Phi = 1/phi = 0.618034…
Phi = phi – 1

( 1 + sqrt(5) )/2 = 1.61803 3988… 
which is an excellent approximation of Phi

The following formula connects “Pi” (3.14159…)  and “phi ” (1.6180…):

  (6/5 ) x  phi 2 = Pi 
(12/5) x phi 2 = 2 x Pi 

sqrt(phi) nearly equals 4/pi 
( 1.272 vs 1.273 ) 

It is incredible that this Formula is expressed by the numbers describing Pyramids of Giza !!!
Here is how: 

Proportions (base to height ratio) of the 1st Pyramid: 11/7
Proportions (base to height ratio) of the 2nd Pyramid: 3/2
Proportions (base to height ratio) of the 3rd Pyramid: 8:/5

(24/10) x phi2 = 2 x Pi

the same formula written with ratios of 3 pyramids:
2 x [ 2 x (11/7)] = (3/2) x (8/5) x phi

Note: the Great Pyramid is a Golden Pyramid: length of the slope side (356) divided by half of the side (440/2 = 220) height is equal to 1.6181818… which is the Golden Ratio Phi


For more information, please read these subject related articles:


  1. aishen says

    I discover the reason why 360° circle, it’s my theory : speed of light (which is not a speed) is 314159265 m/s
    my equation calculate it. : Impedance of vaccum 360 Ohms (not scientific value 376,xx).
    Then formaly civilizations new that( I don’t know how they got it ?

  2. says

    705BC WE did have a 360 day orbit.
    Ten hours, reversed in 705 BC. The Chinese said the sun set twice in the same day with a 360 day year before that.
    This is a timeline being altered.
    In effect – this was accomplished by the Cassiopeian/Elo’im, changing the Anak’im ”12” O.C.D. parameter (360).
    Then again in Joshua 10:13 The Sun Stands Still…
    12Then Joshua spoke to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the sons of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, “O sun, stand still at Gibeon, And O moon in the valley of Aijalon.” 13 So the sun stood still, and the moon stopped, Until the nation avenged themselves of their enemies. Is it not written in the book of Jashar? And the sun stopped in the middle of the sky and did not hasten to go down for about a whole day. 14 There was no day like that before it or after it, when the LORD listened to the voice of a man; for the LORD fought for Israel.…
    This lord, of course, was YHVVH, (En.lil lord of the air ways) an Anakim. This tells us that both factions ”in the heavens” are capable of moving planets. Thus the promise made by the Anakim – following the consequences of the Great Flood caused by the passing of the Nibiru system to ”never again allow that to happen” proves they can move planets.
    (Enki’s Clay Tablet 10) One might think the Anakim are simply taking credit for this ability, but they are so obsessed wth number ”12” that moving the Earth for just five days, instead of say six days, shows us it was not them on that occasion.
    Isaiah 38:8
    ‘I will make the shadow cast by the sun go back the ten steps it has gone down on the stairway of Ahaz.’
    So the sunlight went back the ten steps it had gone down.
    Habakkuk 3:11
    ‘Sun and moon stood still in the heavens at the glint of your flying arrows, at the lightning of your flashing spear’
    Not forgetting Matthew 24:22 ”But for the sake of the elect, the days will be shortened” This was the 2011 event.
    The event of Isaiah 24:23 is yet to come when:
    29 ”Then the glory of the moon will wane, and the brightness of the sun will fade ”
    Reading the ”Lost” Books of Enki describes many reasons for number ”12” not the least being that they have 12 fingers and toes. 12 zodiac guide posts, 60 degrees in the measurements of Earth and so on. Even on the door lintel of the Caucasian Pharaoh Seti I can be seen the MAYAN numeral for ”12”. The influence of the humans which are named Anak’im in the Bible is ongoing

  3. says

    My comment was “loaded”. I Was in the middle of a course on Jyotish, until I perused, revisited, the issue regarding modern statistical analysis via computer power. That is, a very new method, called meta analysis, has essentially trashed astrology. Natal astrology…
    Twixt meta analysis and the studies done with “time twins”, natal astrology appears to be nothing But a belief system. I was a believer. It is more like a religion… Alas, I wanted to be a professional astrologer.

    Now this also is the usual wake up call regarding sociological trends. Note, seeing that this has essentially been called out, that we’ve had, have and will have all kinds of weighty figures, with droves of followers, propounding the wonders of natal astrology……… They could be living a lie. I just can’t play any more until I find better validity.

    However, life is way more complex, right? So I have learned that various aspects at least Seem to manifest events according to their nature. But the catch is that we’ve a penchant for seeing, projecting, patterns everywhere. It’s this thing with selective attention along with over generalizing on specifics.

    As for Pi, way cool. Seems to me it could be theoretically possible for a geomantic kind of natal astrology. If everything really is connected then wtf? Could be the masses simply have a corrupted version. Perhaps someones could rework the Art along the lines of what we are dealing with here, Pi itself.

  4. says

    Good article. I would think that our modern symbolic system is based upon a 360 degree circle because the average life span is about 70-72 years give or take a few: i.e. 72 x 360 is 25,920. It all has to do with a universal system of symbolism: the mythologies of the world written esoterically are not just a consideration of the local mythoi.

    Mark’s question above goes to this same problem. Seeing that the universe is a psyche projection it extrapolates out symbolically ad infinite. Human are so use to things changing and wearing out or slowing down that we think the same thing about the universe at large. But I do not see the animal or vegetation kingdoms slowing down or wearing out. We have to attune our thoughts to reality not vice versa.

    Nine is actually the base number in which all things manifest; however, twelve is the minimal number that allows for the Triplicities (Elements: Fire, Earth, Air and Water) and Quadruplicities (Cardinal, Fixed and Mutable) concepts to extrapolate out ad infinite in a uniform manner across the expanse of the created universe. From this the material world is created. The first nine numbers are merely a commentary on the MONAD, which is the WHOLE OF CREATION. It is what Pythagoras called GOD. Thus, from 1 to 12 to 360 to 25,920 it is all a grand extrapolation of the same idea ad infinite. It is the goal of the individual to see the universe in a grain of sand or else he or she has achieved nothing.

  5. says

    “BTW, we can only wonder if our planet was originally set on a perfect orbit with 360 days per year and slowed down due to some major catastrophe (asteroid impact which slowed it down – and/or perhaps ejected the material to form the moon)…?”

    Thus we wonder about natal astrology.

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